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References
FGC Comprehensive Bibliography
Cultural misconceptions of women's empowerment : female circumcision. Gambia?, s.l. ;. - [BOOK]

Health collection, 1818-1990's (ongoing) (bulk 1860s-1980s): 3.5. [GENERIC]
This collection documents the evolution of medical and scientific thinking and practice relating to women's health from 1818-1990s. There are small amounts of material on such topics as abortion, birth control, childbirth, eugenics, female genital mutilation, lactation, infant mortality, marriage instruction, mental hygiene, motherhood, nutrition, obstetrics, sexuality, sterilization, and AIDS. Types of materials include articles, books, advertisements, clippings, research materials, reports, surveys, pamphlets, and newsletters from a wide range of authors ranging from misogynist to feminist.

Letters--January 1996. [GENERIC]
The Atlantic Monthly Group presents letters to the editor published in the January 1996 issue of "The Atlantic Monthly." The letters cover female circumcision, slavery and Jews, abortion, Arabs and racism.

Letters--January 1996. [GENERIC]
The Atlantic Monthly Group presents letters to the editor published in the January 1996 issue of "The Atlantic Monthly." The letters cover female circumcision, slavery and Jews, abortion, Arabs and racism.

Female Genital Mutilation. [GENERIC]
Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance presents a collection of Internet resources about female genital mutilation (FGM), also referred to as female circumcision. FGM is an invasive surgical procedure usually performed on girls before puberty during which their clitoris is partially or completely removed. Bibliographies, news briefs, medical information, reference materials, and essays are available.

Female Genital Mutilation. [GENERIC]
Amnesty International, a human rights organization, provides information about female genital mutilation as part of its International Campaign Reports series. The organization defines female genital mutilation (FGM), describes the reasons why it is practiced, and outlines the international campaign to eradicate the practice of FGM.

Female Genital Mutilation. [GENERIC]
Presents an April 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet about female genital mutilation. Describes female genital mutilation, its health consequences, the reasons for the procedure, and the international response.

WWWomen: Health. [GENERIC]
Presents a collection of resources on women's health, provided by WWWomen, Inc. Posts an online feedback form and a site search engine. Highlights resources on women's health issues such as breast cancer, pre-eclampsia, anorexia, bulimia, cervical cancer, breast implants, and endometriosis. Offers access to resources on nursing associations, prenatal education, childbirth, gynecology, obstetrics, women's safety, domestic violence, rape, and female circumcision.

Two Million Girls a Year Mutilated. [GENERIC]
Features "Two Million Girls a Year Mutilated," a report presented online as part of the Progress of Nations 1996 resource of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. The report focuses on the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in African countries such as Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Somalia, and the Sudan.

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). [GENERIC]
Offers information on female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female circumcision, compiled by Karina Rowley. Discusses the facts on FGM, statistics, human rights, personal accounts, and the law pertaining to FGM.

Historical Medical Quotes on Circumcision. [GENERIC]
Offers information on circumcision, provided by Jennifer Gardner. Discusses the history of circumcision, methods of circumcision, cancer of the penis, hygiene, myths about circumcision, female circumcision, what happens during circumcision, and the anatomy of the penis.

Ancient History Sourcebook: The Offering of Uha, c.2400 B.C.E. [GENERIC]
Features information about male and female circumcision in ancient Egypt, presented online by Paul Halsall as part of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Feminist News Stories on Female Genital Mutilation. [GENERIC]
Features a collection of feminist news stories on female genital mutilation, presented by the Feminist Majority Foundation. Includes case studies and news on female genital mutilation in Senegal, the Ivory Coast, and Egypt.

(1931). Praeputii incisio : a history of male and female circumcision with chapters on hermaphrodism, infibulation, eunuchism, priapism and divers other curious and phallic customs. New York, Panurge Press. - [BOOK]

(1931). Praeputii incisio : a history of male and female circumcision with chapters on hermaphrodism, infibulation, eunuchism, priapism and divers other curious and phallic customs. New York, Panurge. - [BOOK]

(1931) Praeputii incisio a history of male and female circumcision with chapters on hermaphrodism, infibulation, eunuchism, priapism and divers other curious and phallic customs. Panurge. 311 p. [microform ;]. GN 484 P897 1931
GN484 .P7 - [AUDIOVISUAL]


(1931). Praeputii incisio; a history of male and female circumcision with chapters on hermaphrodism, infibulation, eunuchism, priapism and divers other curious and phallic customs. New York,, Panurge. - [BOOK]

(1979). Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children : female circumcision, childhood marriage, nutritional taboos, etc. : report of a seminar, Khartoum, 10-15 February 1979. Alexandria, Egypt, World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. - [BOOK]

(1980). [Pamphlets on female circumcision. S.l., s.n. - [BOOK]

(1981). Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children : female circumcision, childhood marriage, nutritional taboos, etc. : report of a seminar, Khartoum, 10-15 February 1979. Alexandria, Egypt, World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. - [BOOK]

(1984) Briefingd [i.e. Briefing] document Africn [i.e. African] women speak on female circumcision, Khartoum, October 21-24, 1984. Babiker Badri Scientific Ass. for Women Studies. 2 v. ; 32 cm. [microform]. Microfiche 2001/52405 (G) - [AUDIOVISUAL]

(1985) Women : from witch-hunt to politics. Unesco. 251 p., [12] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

(1986). Report of Conference African Women Speak on Female Circumcision : held, October 21-25-1984, Khartoum Sudan. Omdurman Sudan, Babiker Badri Scientific Association for Women Studies. - [BOOK]

(1987). Les mutilations sexuelles feminines et leur abolition : une lutte africaine. Lausanne, Suisse, Sentinelles. - [BOOK]

(1987) Broken silence. SBS. 1 videocassette (VHS) (30 min.) : col ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. GN484 .B76 1987 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Female circumcision within the Malay - speaking Muslim community of Kattaning, Western Australia.

(1987) A sense of honour. SBS. 1 videocassette (VHS) (60 min.) : sd., col ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. HQ1170 .S46 1987 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Nadia Atif, an Egyptian anthropologist, examines the status and role of Bedouin, Iranian, Egyptian and Saudi women. She focuses on how these various societies live to Islamic edicts and other cultural influences. Includes interviews with Islamic women and academics who discuss mothering, lifestyle, rights, social and economic conditions as well as female circumcision and the honour of virginity and child-bearing.

(1990). Health effects of female circumcision. Chapel Hill, NC, Institute for Development Training. - [BOOK]

(1991) Rites. SBS. 1 videocassette (VHS) (54 min.) : sd., col ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. GN484 .R57 1991 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
The genital mutilation known as female circumcision is still a widespread custom affecting approximately 80 000 000 women throughout 30 countries. The practice is described and discussed by many of those who have had this operation, as well as health and women's rights representatives, who are trying to have the custom stopped.

(1992). "Sudan: Women Resist Female Circumcision." Off our backs XXII(11): 6.- Off our backs - [ARTICLE]

(1992). "Focus: Female circumcision: female genital mutilation." International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics : the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 37(2): 149-150.- International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics : the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics - [ARTICLE]

(1993) Alice Walker Possessing the secret of joy. SBS. 1 videocassette (VHS) (51 min.) : sd., col ; 1993. [videorecording]. PS3573.A425 Z465 1993 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Alice Walker talks about her novel "Possessing the secret of joy" which addresses issues of female genital mutilation, and social protest in Africa and America. Filmed segments including archival film illustrates some of the points made.

(1993) Act of love female circumcision in western Europe = vrouwenbesnijdenis in west Europa. SBS. 1 videocassette (VHS) (43 min.) : sd., col ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. GN484 .A27 1993 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Migrants from Muslim countries where female circumcision is a traditional practice, pose unexpected problems for European doctors and the justice system of their adopted countries. Muslim women, Dutch and French doctors, and French legal officers comment on the relationship between tradition and modern attitudes towards the practice.

(1993). "Letters." West Africa(3940): 496.- West Africa - [ARTICLE]

(1993). "What's Culture Got to Do With It? Excising the Harmful Tradition of Female Circumcision." Harvard law review 106(8): 1944.- Harvard law review - [ARTICLE]

(1994). "Letters." West Africa(4005): 1164.- West Africa - [ARTICLE]

(1994). "Health: An open wound." West Africa(4004): 1138.- West Africa - [ARTICLE]

(1994). "Egypt against female circumcision; Tanzania's needs in CME; Genentech suspends marketing practices." The lancet 344(8930): 1146.- The lancet - [ARTICLE]

(1994). "News." BMJ : British medical journal 309(6958): 827-832.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(1994). "Health: Female circumcision furore: Right for women to suffer?" West Africa(3997): 813.- West Africa - [ARTICLE]

(1994). "Law: Asylum from a Culture of Pain." Time 143(12): 45.- Time - [ARTICLE]

(1995). Mu*tammar al-*Si*h*hah al-Inj*ab*iyah lil-Mar*ah : Warshat *Amal *hawla Khit*an al-In*ath, 25-26 M*ars 1995 : bi-al-ta**awwun bayna Wiz*arat al-Sukk*an wa-Tan*z*im al-Usrah, al-Lajnah al-Qawm*iyah lil-Muna*z*zam*at Ghayr al-*Huk*um*iyah, q*uwat al-*amal al-ma*n*iyah bi-muq*awamat khit*an al-in*ath. Cairo, s.n. c1995. - [BOOK]
Female circumcision; Egypt; congresses.

(1995). "News." BMJ : British medical journal 310(6971): 7.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(1995). "Female Circumcision." The New England journal of medicine 332(3): 189.- The New England journal of medicine - [ARTICLE]

(1995). "Female Circumcision." The New England journal of medicine 332(3): 188.- The New England journal of medicine - [ARTICLE]

(1996). "Free Press." American journalism review : AJR 18(5): 10.- American journalism review : AJR - [ARTICLE]

(1996). "Medical negligence reforms ICSI Female circumcision curbed Dutch consultants unite Paradox of Helicobacter pylori Prescribing scheme given g -ahead Audit figures Central ethics committee needed Food poisoning." BMJ : British medical journal 313(7052): 6.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(1996). "Medical negligence reforms ICSI Female circumcision curbed Dutch consultants unite Paradox of Helicobacter pylori Prescribing scheme given g -ahead Audit figures Central ethics committee needed Food poisoning." BMJ : British medical journal 313(7052): 6.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(1997). Electronic journal of Africana bibliography. Iowa City, Iowa?, University of Iowa. [GENERIC]
"EJAB a refereed online journal of bibliographies created by the late John Howell, University of Iowa Libraries. Coverage includes any aspect of Africa, its peoples, their homes, cities, towns, districts, states, countries, regions, including social, economic sustainable development, creative literature, the arts, and the Diaspora."

(1997) [The cruelest cut]. Channel 9 ;c1997. 1 videocassette (VHS) (12 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Features a Somali fashion model who is campaigning against female circumcision.

(1997). "Egypt - Female circumcision trials." Middle East international(554): 1.- Middle East international - [ARTICLE]

(1997). "Female circumcision in Egypt Litigation in Ireland Malaria in Tanzania." The lancet(9070): 41.- The lancet - [ARTICLE]

(1998). Rapport : journées médicales de réflexion sur les mutilation génitales féminines, 28 au 30 avril 1998. Bamako, Mali, Plan International Mali. - [BOOK]

(1998). Rising daughters aware. S.l., Rising Daughters Aware. [GENERIC]
Provides information on medical, social, legal, and cultural issues surrounding female genital mutilation. Also includes sensitive support and an information network and message board for physicians, students, social workers, educators, activists.

(1998). "Back Talk: Female Circumcision." Essence 28(12): 172.- Essence - [ARTICLE]

(1998). "(98/C 102/168) Female circumcision in Egypt." Official journal of the European Communities. Information and notices 41(102): 116.- Official journal of the European Communities. Information and notices - [ARTICLE]

(1998). "Female Circumcision Is Nearly Universal in Egypt, Eritrea, Mali and Sudan." International family planning perspectives 24(1): 47.- International family planning perspectives - [ARTICLE]

(1999). "NOTES - Female Circumcision: The Road to Change." Syracuse journal of international law and commerce 26: 24.- Syracuse journal of international law and commerce - [ARTICLE]

(1999). "CORRESPONDENCE - Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes about Female Circumcision in Egypt." The New England journal of medicine 341(20): 2.- The New England journal of medicine - [ARTICLE]

(1999). "News - Bill paves way for new NHS changes UK nurses awarded major pay rise Bristol doctor refused access to GMC notes Netherlands sets up euthanasia advisory body Senegal outlaws female circumcision US "best" hospitals do better for heart attacks Scottish inquiry recommends surgeons stop operating if patients die UK revalidation linked to registration UN assesses aid for Colombian earthquake Researchers implant engineered bladders Doctors and donors needed for UK transplants British casualty waiting times remain too long Toronto research funding debate is settled UK government plans Food Standards Agency European observatory will promote better health policy." BMJ : British medical journal 318(7180): 6.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(1999). "(1999/C 96/076): E-2189/98 by Friedhelm Frischenschlager to the Council: Subject: Human rights and female circumcision." Official journal of the European Communities. Information and notices 42(96): 53.- Official journal of the European Communities. Information and notices - [ARTICLE]

(2000). Clashing views on controversial issues in human sexuality. Guilford, Conn., Dushkin/McGraw-Hill. - [BOOK]

(2000). "FEMALE GENITAL AND SEXUAL MUTILATION - SUDAN: "Recent Research Findings" Dr Amna Abdel Rahman Hassan, Exec D SNCTP FG CUTTING - Breaking the Silence Enabling Change - ICRW and CEDPA GUINEA: Female Genital Cutting and Coming of Age: Macro International (US AID) FGM: A Guide to Laws and Policies worldwide EGYPT: Ending FGM - a US AID CEDPA project FGM: A Matter of Human Rights- An Advocate's Guide to Action SOUTH AFRICA: African Immigrants bring FGM along COUNCIL OF EUROPE: FGM Motion for a Resolution FGM: German Bundestag Report on Human Rights FRANCE - G A M S - Women's Group for the Abolition of Sexual Mutilation UK: Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act: No Prosecutions." News - Women's International Network 26(4): 10.- News - Women's International Network - [ARTICLE]

(2000). "News - Lords call for regulation of complementary medicine MPs seek fighter law on female circumcision GP suspended for misleading drug companies Doctors query new Down's syndrome test Talks on climate change collapse Reducing greenhouse gases is useful in short term EU to test cattle "at risk" of BSE Drug resistant cholera in India is due to antibiotic misuse South Africa: new rules for foreign doctors "Buffer zone" law for abortion clinics is "unconstitutional" US strengthens rights of insured patients Ireland backs genetically modified crops US pain relief bill bars doctor assisted suicide Genetics commission starts consultations US calls for research into research integrity Data collection system needed for gun injuries Hospital infections kill 5000 patients a year in England." BMJ : British medical journal 321(7273): 6.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(2000). "CORRECTIONS - Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes about Female Circumcision in Egypt." The New England journal of medicine 342(3): 224.- The New England journal of medicine - [ARTICLE]

(2001). "FEMALE GENITAL AND SEXUAL MUTILATION - FGM - "Female Circumcision in the European Union" Written Questions in Official Journal of the European Communities CANADA: Legislation to Prohibit FGM Initiatives by Government against FGM The Legal Aspects of FGM and Educational Outreach JAPAN: Women's Action against FGM NORWAY: FGM continues among African Immigrants UK: "Holistic Care" for Women with FGM FORWARD Newsletter BENIN: 75 Excisors Renounce Operation." News - Women's International Network 27(3): 28.- News - Women's International Network - [ARTICLE]

(2001). "DEPARTMENTS - Tomorrow in Brief - Online textbooks Merging cameras, cell phones Fighting female circumcision One billion elderly Nano-lube." The Futurist 35(4): 2.- The Futurist - [ARTICLE]

(2001). "News - Commons votes for human stem cell research MEPs back tougher health warnings on cigarette packets US sets national standards for patient privacy Spain agrees palliative care plan Vaccine improves memory in "Alzheimer's" mice GP struck off for agreeing to perform female circumcision US settles biggest ever healthcare fraud case Polish nurses strike for better wages UK plans shake-up ofinental health laws." BMJ : British medical journal 322(7277): 4.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(2001). "Kenyan victory against female circumcision S Africa's antenatal HIV programme Namibia prosecutes healers." The lancet(9253): 371.- The lancet - [ARTICLE]

(2002). History behind the headlines, vol. 3 : the origins of conflicts worldwide. Detroit, Gale Group. - [BOOK]

(2002). "News - Poor countries could lose out on benefits of genomic research FDA panels recommend drug be put back on market Australia acts to restrict IVF to heterosexual couples Drug companies maintain "astounding" profits GMC to issue advice on end of life decisions Dying woman loses battle for assisted suicide Woman who won right to refuse treatment dies bmj com news roundup: Intravenous immunoglobulin increases risk of thrombotic events One in 12 children dies before age 5 Children's hospital may drain resources from rest of Wales India's health levels a mix of success and embarrassment Nigeria acts to eradicate female circumcision Germany revamps its medical training Canada considers maximum waiting times Surgeons postpone work as insurer goes broke Torture continues in post-election Zimbabwe Court rules that delays breach patients' rights NHS psychiatric wards need lead consultants." BMJ : British medical journal 324(7345): 6.- BMJ : British medical journal - [ARTICLE]

(2002). "Tobacco-industry tactics exposed in Latin America Kenyan health professionals participate in female circumcision." The lancet(9350): 2057.- The lancet - [ARTICLE]

(2002). "The case against female circumcision." New scientist(2363): 10.- New scientist - [ARTICLE]

(2002). "Agreement rejects female circumcision." New scientist(2360): 8.- New scientist - [ARTICLE]

(2003). Violence against women : from silence to empowerment. Monrovia, CA, World Vision. - [BOOK]

Aamina, W., A. Sayida, et al. (1985) Social and cultural aspects of female circumcision and infibulation a preliminary report. Somali Academy of Sciences and Arts. 20 leaves, [1] p. of plates : map ; 30 cm. [microform]. GN484 .A14 1985a - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Aamina, W., A. Sayida, et al. (1985). Social and cultural aspects of female circumcision and infibulation : a preliminary report. Mogadishu, Somali Academy of Sciences and Arts. - [BOOK]

*Abd al-H*ad*i, A. a. (1995). Mu*tamar al-*Si*h*hah al-Inj*ab*iyah lil-Mar*ah : warshat amal *hawla khit*an al-in*ath, 25-26 M*ars 1995 : bi-al-ta**awun bayna Wiz*arat al-Sak*an wa-Tan*z*im al-Asrah, al-Lajnah al-Qawm*iyah lil-Man*zam*at ghayra al-*Huk*um*iyah, Quwat al-*Amal al-Ma*n*iyah bi-Maq*awamat Khit*an al-In*ath. S.l., Ma*t*abi* R*uz al-Y*usuf al-Jad*idah. - [BOOK]

*Abd al-H*ad*i, A. a., S. a. *Abd al-Sal*am, et al. (1998). Mawqif al-a*tibb*a* min khit*an al-in*ath. J*ardin Sit*i, al-Q*ahirah, Markaz al-Q*ahirah li-Dir*as*at *Huq*uq al-Ins*an. - [BOOK]

*Abd al-H*ad*i, A. a., S. a. *Abd al-Sal*am, et al. (1999). Physicians' attitudes towards female circumcision. Garden City, Cairo, Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. - [BOOK]

*Abd al-H*ad*i, A. a. and Markaz al-Q*ahirah li-Dir*as*at *Huq*uq al-Ins*an. (1994). We are decided : the struggle of an Egyptian village to eradicate female circumcision. Garden City, Cairo, Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. - [BOOK]

*Abd al-Razz*aq, A. u. B. (1998). Circumcision in Islam. London, Dar Al Taqwa. - [BOOK]

*Abd al-Sal*am, S. a. Tashw*ih al-jins*i lil-in*ath (al-khit*an) : awh*am wa-*haq*a*iq. Cairo, Markaz al-Q*ahirah li-Dir*as*at *Huq*uq al-Ins*an. - [BOOK]

*Abd al-Sal*am, S. a. and Markaz al-Q*ahirah li-Dir*as*at *Huq*uq al-Ins*an. (1996) al-Tashw*ih al-jins*i lil-in*ath, al-khit*an awh*am wa-*haq*a*iq. Majm*u*at al-*Amal al-Ma*n*iyah bi-Mun*aha*dat Khit*an al-Ban*at Markaz al-Q*ahirah li-Dir*as*at *Huq*uq al-Ins*an. 32 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. [microform]. Microfiche 2002/52053 (H) - [AUDIOVISUAL]

*Abd al-Sal*am, S. a. and A. A. A. Soliman (2003). Dal*il tadr*ib*i *an al-*unf *did al-mar*ah : ighti*s*ab al-ma*h*arim, jar*a*im al-sharaf, khit*an al-in*ath. al-Q*ahirah, Markaz Qa*d*ay*a al-Mar*ah al-Mi*sr*iyah. - [BOOK]

Abdel Halim, A. M. (2003). Honorable daughters : the lived experience of circumcised Sudanese women in the United States: 272 leaves. [GENERIC]

Abdel Magied, A. and S. M. Ahmed (2003). "Sexual Experiences and the Psychosexual Effect of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Circumcision (FC) on Sudanese Women." Atlantis 28: 25-30.- Atlantis - [ARTICLE]

Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. A. (1994). "To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision." Medicine and law 13(7/8): 575.- Medicine and law - [ARTICLE]

Abwao, P., MSF--Spain, et al. (1995). HIV/AIDS and female circumcision in Muslim areas of Kenya : proceedings of a seminar held between July 29th-31st, 1995 at Naivasha, Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya, Medicos sin Fronteras : Northern Aid. - [BOOK]

Adinma, J. I. B. (1997). "Current status of female circumcision among Nigerian Igbos." West African journal of medicine 16(4): 232.- West African journal of medicine - [ARTICLE]

African Centre for Women. (1997). Traditional and cultural practices harmful to the girl-child : a cross sectional review. Addis Ababa, African Centre for Women. - [BOOK]

Alasebu Gebre, S., D. Mulumebet, et al. (1985). Harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia Ministry of Health : UNICEF. - [BOOK]

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. (1993). Mutiler au nom de Yahvé ou d'Allah : légitimation religieuse de la circoncision masculine et féminine. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique, Centre d'études et de recherches sur le monde arabe contemporain. - [BOOK]

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. (1994). To mutilate in the name of Jehova or Allah : legitimization of male and female circumcision. Amsterdam, MERA. - [BOOK]

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. (2001). Circoncision masculine, circoncision féminine : débat religieux, médical, social et juridique. Paris, L'Harmattan. - [BOOK]

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. (2001). Male & female circumcision : among Jews, Christians and Muslims : religious, medical, social and legal debate. Warren Center, Pa., Shangri-La Publications. - [BOOK]

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. and Middle East Research Associates. (1994). To mutilate in the name of Jehovah or Allah : legitimization of male and female Circumcision. Den Haag, Gegevenes Koninklijke Bibliothek. - [BOOK]

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. and Middle East Research Associates. (1994). To mutilate in the name of Jehovah or Allah : legitimization of male and female circumcision. Amsterdam, Middle East Research Associates. - [BOOK]

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, S. A. and L. Weil-Curiel (2001). Circoncision masculine, circoncision féminine : débat religieux, médical, social et juridique. Paris, Harmattan. - [BOOK]

Alibbai, S. M. H. (1995). "Female circumcision not in Qur'an." CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne 152(8): n.p.- CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne - [ARTICLE]

Al-Krenawi, A. and W.-L. Rachel (2000). "Attitudes toward and perceived psychosocial impact of female circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev." Sage Family Studies Abstracts 22(2).- Sage Family Studies Abstracts - [ARTICLE]

Al-Krenawi, A. and R. Wiesel-Lev (1999). "The Cultural Context of Families - Attitudes toward and Perceived Psychosocial Impact of Female Circumcision as Practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev." Family process 38(4): 14.- Family process - [ARTICLE]

Alleman, A. (1997). Towards the elimination of female genital mutilation. Virginia Beach, Va., Regent University: viii, 90 leaves. [GENERIC]

Al-Sabbagh, M. L. and World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (1996). Islamic ruling on male and female circumcision. Alexandria, Egypt, World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. - [BOOK]

Althaus, F. A. (1997). "Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage or Violation of Rights?" International family planning perspectives 23(3): 130.- International family planning perspectives - [ARTICLE]

Álvarez Degregori, M. C. (2001). Sobre la mutilación genital femenina y otros demonios. Bellaterra, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Servei de Publicacions. - [BOOK]

Am*in, F. s. M. h. M. i. (1990). Khif*a*d al-mar*ah. Umm Durm*an, Ma*had Sukaynah. - [BOOK]

Amnesty International USA. (1997). Female genital mutilation : a human rights information pack. New York, Amnesty International USA. - [BOOK]

Amnesty International-Ghana. (1996). Working together for change : stop female genital mutilation : a human rights awareness workshop report. Koforidua, Eastern Region, Ghana, Amnesty International-Ghana. - [BOOK]

Anderson, D. M. (1994). Bodies and souls : female circumcision and Christian missions in colonial Kenya, 1900-1939. Cape Town, Centre for African Studies University of Cape Town. - [BOOK]

Anderson, L., B. Engeler, et al. (1997) [Marriage shock Women in the material world ; Community in cyberspace ; Urban Bush Women]. Sage Colleges ;
WAMC Public Radio. 1 sound cassette (25 min.) : analog. [sound recording]. HQ1101 .R9x no.424 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Part 1. A woman can be sexy, but can a wife? Karen Kelly spoke with the author of Marriage shock to find out what happens when educated, independent women get married. She found that many of them dress more conservatively and worry about cleaning the house. (4:51)
Part 2. Arranged marriage, female circumcision, co-wifedom...these are the norms for some women in the world. Women in the Material World is a photographic essay of the lives of 21 "statistically average" women worldwide. Beth Engeler reports. (7:10)
Part 3. Credit card thieves and perverts are the minority of cybercitizens, according to commentator Lou Heite. From East Iceland, the Internet has enriched her life. (2:22)
Part 4. Members of the dance troupe, "Urban Bush Women", perform works rooted in the folklore and spiritual traditions of African American and Caribbean cultures. Linda Anderson caught up with them after a performance earlier this year. (5:58)

Anenden, H., R. Omaar, et al. (1999) The road to change. World Health Organization. 1 videocassette (45 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. GN484 .R62 1999 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Deals with the issue of female genital mutilation (or FGM) which is practiced by many different ethnic groups both in Africa and in countries where Africans have immigrated. It is estimated that more than 130 million women have undergone some type of FGM with the resulting suffering and long term medical problems. Activists describe efforts in many countries aimed at eliminating this practice including WHO's role in the effort.

Arbesman, M., L. Kahler, et al. (1993). "Assessment of the Impact of Female Circumcision on the Gynecological, Genitourinary and Obstetrical Health Problems of Women from Somalia: Literature Review and Case Series." Women & health 20(3): 27-42.- Women & health - [ARTICLE]

Asinugo, S. (2001). The women of Eze : [chasing the evils of female circumcision : a novel]. Alexandria, VA, Mandrill. - [BOOK]

Assaf-Tengroth, L. and Filmakers Library inc. (1997) In the name of God. Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (29 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. WP 200 VC no.9 1997 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
"This film takes us to the Fistula Hospital in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), one of the few places giving medical care to victims of infibulation. Here, recovered patients are even trained to assist doctors in repairing the damages to other women." An increasing number of Ethiopian women have started to protest against these ancient traditions. But change will not happen overnight.

Assaf-Tengroth, L., B. Jägerskog, et al. In the name of God. Filmakers Library Inc. 1 videocassette (30 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. GN484 .I5 1990z - [AUDIOVISUAL]
"This film takes us to the Fistula Hospital in Addis Ababa [Ethiopia], one of the few places giving medical care to victims of infibulation. Here, recovered patients are even trained to assist doctors in repairing the damages to other women"--Container.

Assaf-Tengroth, L., B. Jägerskog, et al. In the name of God. [helping circumcised women]. Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (29 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
"This film takes us to the Fistula Hospital in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), one of the few places giving medical care to victims of infibulation. Here, recovered patients are even trained to assist doctors in repairing the damages to other women."

Associazione italiana donne per lo sviluppo. and Somali Women's Dem. Organization. (1989). Female circumcision : strategies to bring about change : proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia. Rome, Italy
Mogadisho, Somalia, Italian Association for Women in Development ;
Somali Women's Democratic Organization. - [BOOK]


Australia. and Family Law Council (Australia). (1994). Government response to the Family Law Council report on female genital mutilation. Canberra, The Government. - [BOOK]

Australia. Family Law Council. (1994). Female genital mutilation : a report to the Attorney-General. Canberra, Australian Govt. Pub. Service. - [BOOK]

Australia. Family Law Council. (1994). Female genital mutilation : discussion paper. Barton, Australia, Family Law Council. - [BOOK]

Australian Capital Territory (1997). Female genital mutilation. Canberra, Publications and Public Communication for the ACT Women's Health Programs. - [BOOK]

Babatunde, E. D. (1998). Women's rites versus women's rights : a study of circumcision among the Ketu Yoruba of South Western Nigeria. Lawrenceville, NJ, Africa World Press. - [BOOK]

Badri, A. E. (1984). Female circumcision in the Sudan : change and continuity. Omdurman, Sudan, Ahfad University College for Women. - [BOOK]

Bah, A. (1998). Problématique de la suppression de l'excision au Mali. Bamako, Ecole normale supérieure. - [BOOK]

Bailey, J. M. (2003). "The female circumcision controversy: an anthropological perspective - By Ellen Gruenbaum University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 2001 221 pages + appendices 24 95, paperback." Journal of midwifery & women's health 48(1): 1.- Journal of midwifery & women's health - [ARTICLE]

Baker, C. A., G. J. Gilson, et al. (1993). "Female circumcision: Obstetric issues." American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 169(6): 1616.- American journal of obstetrics and gynecology - [ARTICLE]

Bakker, J., Fatusch Productions., et al. (2002) The angel returns. Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (50 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. 392.1409677 A581b, 2002 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Circumcision is a tradition of family honor, a marketable commodity for dowries, a religious rite, a means to control women's sexuality, and what is often not expressed, a livelihood for the many women who perform this ritual. Circumcisers are viewed with respect and paid for their services. They lobby fiercely against its abolition. Isnino Ahmed Musso uses all methods at her disposal to change the mindset of her people, including radio debates, which is an effective way to reach an illiterate population. But often, after meeting with religious leaders and elders in villages, she realizes that her best hope is to encourage a transition from a full Pharaonic circumcision to the lesser Sunna-type just a few small cuts.

Bakker, J., Filmakers Library inc., et al. (2001) Changing paths female circumcision in Mali. Filmakers Library inc. 1 videocassette (46 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. GN652.M25 C43 2001 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
In Mali ninety-three percent of the women are circumcised. This tradition is deeply routed in village society. Astan Diallo travels to several villages on her moped, talking to men and women about the health hazards of circumcision. After five years, Astan's hard work does bring results as old traditions make way for new ones.

Ballal, A. I. (1992). Psychological effects of female circumcision. New York, Vantage Press. - [BOOK]

Barruel, F. (1991). Marques sexuelles. Grenoble, La Pensée sauvage. - [BOOK]

Barry, J. (1995). Cultural carvings and spiritual transcendence in Alice Walker's Possessing the secret joy: 44 leaves. [GENERIC]

Bayoudh, F., S. Barrak, et al. (1995). "Study of a common practice in Somalia: female circumcision." Mâedecine tropicale : revue du Corps de santâe colonial 55(3): 5.- Mâedecine tropicale : revue du Corps de santâe colonial - [ARTICLE]

Beauchemin, E. and Radio Netherlands International. (1995) The Story of Ilene. Seeds of death in Angola. Radio Netherlands. 1 sound cassette (64 min.) : mono. [sound recording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
The Story of Ilene examines the life experiences of a Burkinabe woman who was circumcised and the work of the National Commission to Combat Female Genital Mutilation established in Burkina Faso which is waging a campaign to have the practice banned. Seeds of Death in Angola concerns the continuing damage done by the 9 million mines which were planted in Angola during the past 30 years of fighting. These mines continue to maim and kill daily, mostly women and children, while there are only a few de-mining groups active in the country.

Beck-Karrer, C. (1996). Löwinnen sind sie : Gespräche mit somalischen Frauen und Männern über Frauenbeschneidung. Bern, EFeF Verlag. - [BOOK]

Beck-Karrer, C. and S. Schädeli (1992). Frauenbeschneidung in Afrika. Bern, Universität Bern Institut für Ethnologie. - [BOOK]

Béguin Stöckli, D. (1993). Genitale Verstümmelung von Frauen : eine Bibliographie = Female genital mutilation : a bibliography. Bern, Institut für Ethnologie der Universität Bern. - [BOOK]

Béguin Stöckli, D. and Universität Bern. Institut für Ethnologie. (1993). Genitale Verstümmelung von Frauen : eine bibliographie = Mutilations génitales féminines : une bibliographie = Female genital mutilation : a bibliography. Bern, Universität Bern Institut für Ethnologie. - [BOOK]

Bell, H. (1998). "MIDWIFERY TRAINING AND FEMALE CIRCUMCISION IN THE INTER-WAR ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN I would like to thank Robert Bickers, Steve Feierman, Katherine Rake, Megan Vaughan and an anonymous referee for their constructive criticism I am also grateful to those who commented on earlier versions of this paper presented at various seminars in Oxford, at the ‘Nursing, Women's History and the Politics of Welfare’ conference, Nottingham, 18-21 September 1996, and at the 36th Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, San Francisco, 23-26 November 1996." The Journal of African History 39(2): 20.- The Journal of African History - [ARTICLE]

Bengston, B. and C. Baldwin (1993). "The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues." Journal of multicultural counseling and development 21(3): 168.- Journal of multicultural counseling and development - [ARTICLE]

Bensadon, N. (2002). Attentats contre le sexe, ou, Ce que nous dévoilent les mutilations sexuelles. Paris, L'Harmattan. - [BOOK]

Benson, S. and E. Gruenbaum (2001). "ANTHROPOLOGY: The Female Circumcision Controversy - An anthropological perspective." TLS, the Times literary supplement(5123): 3.- TLS, the Times literary supplement - [ARTICLE]

Best, D., R. Blumer, et al. (1994) Rights of passage four stories of survival. Unicef ;
Distributed by Maryknoll World Productions. 1 videocassette (VHS) (30 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. HQ798 .R54 1994 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Presents the stories of the coming of age of four girls from Nicaragua, India, Jamaica, and Burkina Faso, West Africa. Puberty is too often the beginning of a life of abuse and early death in many societies.

Beydoun, N. (1999). Female genital mutilation : a difficult compromise: 40, [1] leaves. [GENERIC]

Bhaiy*a, A. a. and S. Chhachhi (1986) Women, take one : beginning of a dialogue in the Third World Women's Film Festival 1986. Jagori. 38 p. : ill. ; 35 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Boyle, E. H. (2002). Female genital cutting : cultural conflict in the global community. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. - [BOOK]

Boyle, E. H. and NetLibrary Inc. (2002). Female genital cutting cultural conflict in the global community. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press: xiii, 188 p. [GENERIC]

Braide, M. T. D. (1956) A study of female circumcision in eastern Nigeria its medical significance. 1 reel. [microform ;]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Brett-Smith, S. C. (1982). Symbolic blood : cloths for excised women. - [BOOK]

Briand, N. J. (1999). Women's rights : the role of non-governmental organizations in the elimination of female genital mutilation: ii, 71 leaves. [GENERIC]

Bridgeman, J. and S. Millns (1995). Law and body politics : regulating the female body. Aldershot; Brookfield, Dartmouth. - [BOOK]

Brisson, P., H. Patel, et al. (2001). "Female circumcision." Journal of Pediatric Surgery 36(7): 2.- Journal of Pediatric Surgery - [ARTICLE]

Brisson, P., H. Patel, et al. (2001). "CASE REPORTS - Female Circumcision." Journal of pediatric surgery 36(7): 2.- Journal of pediatric surgery - [ARTICLE]

Brooks, K. D. (2000). The perception of self-repression in Alice Walker's Possessing the secret joy and Garcia Lorca's Blood wedding, The house of Bernarda Alba and Yerma: 27 leaves. [GENERIC]

Bryk, F. (1974). Circumcision in man and woman; its history, psychology, and ethnology. New York,, AMS Press. - [BOOK]

Bryk, F. (2001). Circumcision in man and woman : its history, psychology, and ethnology. Honolulu, Hawaii, University Press of the Pacific. - [BOOK]

Burstyn, L. (1995). "Health: Female Circumcision Comes to America." The Atlantic 276(4): 8.- The Atlantic - [ARTICLE]

Burstyn, L. (1995). "Heatlh: Female Circumcision Comes to America." The Atlantic monthly 276(4): 28.- The Atlantic monthly - [ARTICLE]

Busby, G., L. Fleming, et al. (1999) [To escape mutilation "Comfort women" ; Birthing NASA ; Career stereotypes]. Sage Colleges ;
WAMC Public Radio. 1 sound cassette (25 min.) : analog. [sound recording]. HQ1101 .R9x no.523 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Part 1. Twenty-nine-year-old Adelaide Abankwah came to the United States from Ghana in search of asylum. She feared her tribal elders would cut her genitals as a form of punishment. Since arriving in the United States, however, she has been subjected to two and a half years in a detention center. (5:28)
Part 2. History must be examined, so as not to be repeated. Silence broken is a new independent documentary film that takes a look at Korean comfort women. These women were forced into prostitution by the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second World War. Documentary producer Daisil Kim-Gibson interviewed former comfort women. From the women's stories you hear the pain of their experience, but you also hear the resilience as the women demand acknowledgement and justice for the crimes against humanity committed against them. 51 Percent's Leah Fleming takes a look at the film and the director behind it. (7:09)
Part 3. Thirty years after man landed on the moon, the country witnessed the first United States space mission commanded by a woman. None of these achievements would have been possible without the work of Eileen Galloway, who helped draft the National Aeronautics and Space Agency Act. In 1957, she wrote a committee print for Congress on guided missiles, which brought her to the attention of leaders for the creation of a space agency. Glenn Busby spoke with Galloway and has this report (4:22)
Part 4. While women have made great strides in all career fields, there are still some stereotypes that permeate our culture. Our commentator Barbara Zingman shares some of these misconceptions with us. (4:09)

Cabdulqadir, C. (2000). Godob aan la garwaaqsan = Female circumcision. Toronto, Somali Multi-Media Services. - [BOOK]

Calder, B. L., Y. M. R. Brown, et al. (1993). "Female Circumcision/Genitial Mutilation: Culturally Sensitive Care." Health care for women international 14(3): 227.- Health care for women international - [ARTICLE]

Caldwell, J. C., I. O. Orubuloye, et al. (1997). "Male and female circumcision in Africa from a regional to a specific Nigerian examination." Social science & medicine 44(8): 14.- Social science & medicine - [ARTICLE]

Cancel, C. M. Women's Issues in the Third World, General Internet Co. [GENERIC]
Features a collection of links about the role of women in the Third World, compiled by Cecil Marie Cancel as part of the Mining Co. directory of Internet resources. Focuses on women in developing countries in Latin America, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Includes current news events. Offers information on child marriages, female circumcision, health issues, marriage customs, political rights, and trafficking of women. Provides access to a chat room and a newsletter. Links to related sites. Posts contact information via e-mail.

Carey, P. (1998). Female genital mutilation: iv, 144 leaves. [GENERIC]

Carpenter, R. C. (2001). "The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective (review)." Human Rights Quarterly 23(3): 832-836.- Human Rights Quarterly - [ARTICLE]

Carr, D. and Macro International. Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys. (1997). Female genital cutting : findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys Program. Calverton, Md., Macro International Inc. - [BOOK]

Castañeda, J. C. (2003). Fronteras del placer, fronteras de la culpa : a propósito de la mutilación femenina en Egipto. México, Centro de Estudios de Asia y Africa el Colegio de México. - [BOOK]

Center for Constitutional Rights. (New York N.Y.) (1984) Greenham women against cruise missiles. Center for Constitutional Rights. 22 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Center for Reproductive Law & Policy. (2000). Female genital mutilation a matter of human rights : an advocate's guide to action. New York?, Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP): 58 p. [GENERIC]

Center for Reproductive Law & Policy. (2000). Legislation on female circumcision/female genital mutilation in the United States. New York, CRLP. - [BOOK]

Center for Reproductive Law & Policy. (2000). Reproductive rights 2000 : moving forward. New York, NY, Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. - [BOOK]

Center for Reproductive Law & Policy. (2000). Female genital mutilation : a matter of human rights : an advocate's guide to action. New York, Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP). - [BOOK]

Center for Reproductive Law and policy. (1997). Legislation on female genital mutilation in the United States. New York, Center for Reproductive Law & Policy. - [BOOK]

Centre culturel français (Cotonou Benin). Espace documentaire. (1998). L'excision : revue de presse, 9.12.1998. Cotonou, Espace documentaire Centre culturel français. - [BOOK]

Centre Djoliba (Bamako Mali) (1997). Les mutilations genitales feminines au Mali : rapport du seminaire national du 24 au 27 juin 1997 à Bamako. Bamako, Centre Djoliba. - [BOOK]

Centre for Development and Population Activities. Egypt Country Office., International Center for Research on Women., et al. (1999). Ending female genital cutting : a positive deviance approach in Egypt. Washington, DC, International Center for Research on Women : Centre for Development and Population Activities. - [BOOK]

Chalmers, B. (2003). Female genital mutilation and obstetric care. Victoria, B.C., Trafford. - [BOOK]

Chauhan, R. (2002). "The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective, and: Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide (review)." NWSA Journal 14(2): 230-233.- NWSA Journal - [ARTICLE]

Chege, J. N., I. Askew, et al. (2001). An assessment of the alternative rites approach for encouraging abandonment of female genital mutilation in Kenya. Washington, DC, Frontiers in Reproductive Health. - [BOOK]

Christiansen, C. (1995). Lived experience of circumcision in immigrant Somali women : a Heideggerian hermeneutic analysis: ix, 151 p. [GENERIC]

Christie, K. M. (1996). Perceived problems of female genital mutilation in Somali women: ix, 87 leaves. [GENERIC]

Christoffersen-Deb, A. (2003). Medicalization of women's health in developing countries : female circumcision in Western Kenya: 130 p. [GENERIC]

Church of Scotland. Mission Council. (1931). Female circumcision : memorandum. Nairobi?, Church of Scotland. - [BOOK]

Church of Scotland. Mission Council. (1931). Female circumcision : memorandum. Nairobi?, Church of Scotland. - [BOOK]

Clarke, A. L. F. (1995). The process of changed meanings : a study of the Canadian experience of Somali women in the Kitchener-Waterloo area in regard to female circumcision. Ottawa, National Library of Canada Acquisitions and Bibliographic Services Branch: 168 leaves. [GENERIC]

Clarke, A. L. F. (1996) The process of changed meanings a study of the Canadian experience of Somali women in the Kitchener-Waterloo area in regard to female circumcision. National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada. 2 microfiches. [microform]. 300 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Clay, A. M. C. (1997). Female genital mutilation : an attitudinal study: vi, 61 leaves. [GENERIC]

Clay, A. M. C. (1997). Female genital mutilation : an attitudinal study. Beaumont, Tex., Lamar University: vi, 61 leaves. [GENERIC]

Coleman, C. (1998). The volunteer. New York, NY, Warner Books. - [BOOK]
An American peace corps volunteer in Tanzania saves an African girl from female circumcision by taking her across the border to Kenya. But the girl's fiance, a powerful sultan whom the American attacked with his eagle, gives chase and a bloody showdown follows.

Collins, P. L. (2003). The fattening hut. Boston, Houghton Mifflin. - [BOOK]
A teenage girl living on a tropical island runs away to escape her tribe's customs of arranged marriages and female genital mutilation.

Cosmas, H. and World Vision Tanzania. Advocacy Unit. (2000). Female genital mutilation (FGM) : baseline survey report, central & Arusha zones. Arusha, Tanzania, World Vision Tanzania Advocacy Unit. - [BOOK]

Costantinou, J. L. B. (1997). Attitudes of Somali men toward female circumcision: ix, 79 leaves. [GENERIC]

Cotran, E., M. Yamani, et al. (2000). The rule of law in the Middle East and the Islamic world : human rights and the judicial process. London ; New York
New York, I.B. Tauris Pub. in association with The Centre of Islamic Studies and Middle Eastern Law School of Oriental and African Studies University of London ;
Distributed in the USA by St. Martin's Press. - [BOOK]


Creel, L., L. S. Ashford, et al. (2001). Abandoning female genital cutting : prevalence, attitudes, and efforts to end the practice. Washington, DC, Population Reference Bureau. - [BOOK]

Daia, J. M. A. (2000). "Female circumcision." Saudi medical journal 21(Part 10): 921-923.- Saudi medical journal - [ARTICLE]

DANIDA. (1996). Guidelines on the prevention of female genital mutilation. Copenhagen, Ministry of Foreign affairs DANIDA. - [BOOK]

Davies, C. B. and A. A. Graves (1986). Ngambika : studies of women in African literature. Trenton, N.J., Africa World Press. - [BOOK]

Davis, D. S. (2001). Male and female genital alteration : a collision course with the law? Cleveland, Ohio, Health Matrix. - [BOOK]

Davis, G., J. Ellis, et al. (1999). "ARTICLES - Female Circumcision: The Prevalence and Nature of the Ritual in Eritrea." Military medicine 164(1): 6.- Military medicine - [ARTICLE]

Davis, J. (1993) Beyond the veil. National Public Radio. 5 sound cassettes (80 min.) : mono., 1 7/8 ips ; 1/8 in tape. [sound recording]. HQ1170 .B49 1993 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Dedman, P., Filmakers Library inc., et al. (1991) Rites. Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (52 min.) : sd., col. with b&w ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. WP 200 VC no.5 1991
GN484 .R58 1991
392 R61 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

(Producer) This program explores the custom of female circumcision which has been commonplace throughout history. Today it is still practiced in many cultures, particularly in Africa. This program shows the efforts of women throughout the world to stop the practice. It considers three major contexts in which female genital mutilation (FGM) occurs. The first is "cosmetic," and the second is "punitive." Medical historian Dr. Ornella Moscurri describes how women in the late 19th and early 20th century were subjected to FGM if they stepped out of line. The third context is as part of the cultural transition to adulthood and initiation into female life. Routine mutilation has been fiercely attacked by Western observers, although such attacks have themselves been the subject of accusations of cultural imperialism.

DeLuca, L. and S. Kamenya (1995). Representation of female circumcision in Finzan, a dance for the heroes. - [BOOK]

DeLuca, L. and S. Kamenya (1995). "Representation of Female Circumcision in Finzan, a Dance for the Heroes." Research in African literatures 26(3): 5.- Research in African literatures - [ARTICLE]

Dembélé, S. K. (2001). Excision, douleur de femme : pour une stratégie de communication en faveur de la lutte contre l'excision en Côte d'Ivoire. Abidjan, Edilis. - [BOOK]

Demichelis, D., M. Dotta, et al. (1998) Tanzania under the shadow of Kilimanjaro. Ambrose Video. 1 videocassette (27 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. 960 PEO v.7 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Focuses on the culture and village life of Tanzania, in the context of the nation's land, history, traditions, and economy. Includes discussion of the tradition of male and female circumcision and other rites of passage. Shows some of Tanzania's many areas of natural beauty.

Denmark. Sundhedsstyrelsen. (1999). Forebyggelse af omskæring af piger. København, Sundhedsstyrelsen. - [BOOK]

Denniston, G. C., F. M. Hodges, et al. (1999). Male and female circumcision : medical, legal, and ethical considerations in pediatric practice. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. - [BOOK]

Denniston, G. C., F. M. Hodges, et al. (2001). Understanding circumcision : a multi-disciplinary approach to a multi-dimensional problem. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. - [BOOK]

Denniston, G. C., F. M. Hodges, et al. (1999). Male and female circumcision medical, legal, and ethical considerations in pediatric practice. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: xvi, 547 p. [GENERIC]

Denniston, G. C. and M. F. Milos (1997). Sexual mutilations : a human tragedy. New York, Plenum Press. - [BOOK]

Dh*ib, S. a. i. (2000). Khit*an al-dhuk*ur wa-al-in*ath *inda al-Yah*ud wa-al-Mas*i*h*iy*in wa-al-Muslim*in : al-jadal al-d*in*i. Beirut, Riad El Rayyis Books. - [BOOK]
Male and female circumcision according to Judaism, Christianity and Islam; the religious debate.

Diallo, A. (1984). A society of knowledge analysis of literature on female circumcision: ii, 107 leaves. [GENERIC]

Dinslage, S. (1981). Mädchenbeschneidung in Westafrika. Hohenschäftlarn bei München, Kommissionsverlag K. Renner. - [BOOK]

Dirie, M. A. and G. Lindmark (1991). "A hospital study of the complications of female circumcision." Tropical doctor 21(4): 146.- Tropical doctor - [ARTICLE]

Dixon, J. T. (1997). "Introduction: Colloquium: Bridging Society, Culture, and Law: The Issue of Female Circumcision." Case Western Reserve law review 47(2): 263.- Case Western Reserve law review - [ARTICLE]

Dorflinger, A., P. Kuhn, et al. (2000). "Reviews - Female Circumcision -- (Not) A Purely African Problem." Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde: Ergebnisse der Forschung fèur die Praxis 60(11): 5.- Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde: Ergebnisse der Forschung fèur die Praxis - [ARTICLE]

Döring H, M. T. (1998). El asesinato del deseo : sexualidad y cultura. México, D.F., Distribuciones Fontamara. - [BOOK]

Dorkenoo, E. (1994). Cutting the rose : female genital mutilation : the practice and its prevention. London, UK, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

Dorkenoo, E. (1995). Cutting the rose : female genital mutilation : the practice and its prevention. London, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

Dorkenoo, E. and S. Elworthy (1992). Female genital mutilation : proposals for change. London, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

Dupret, B. (2002). "Sexual Morality at the Egyptian Bar: Female Circumcision, Sex Change Operations, and Motives For Suing." Islamic Law and Society 9(1): 42-69.- Islamic Law and Society - [ARTICLE]

Dyer, O. (2001). "GP stuck off for agreeing to perform female circumcision." British Medical Journal 322(7277): 9a.- British Medical Journal - [ARTICLE]

Ebong, R. D. (1997). "Female circumcision and its health implications: a study of the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria." Journal of the Royal Society of Health 117(2): 95.- Journal of the Royal Society of Health - [ARTICLE]

Edwards, K. A. R. (1994). "Female Circumcision: A Lifetime of Suffering." Pre- and peri-natal psychology journal : official journal of the Pre and Peri-natal Psychology Association of North America (PPPANA) 9(2): 159.- Pre- and peri-natal psychology journal : official journal of the Pre and Peri-natal Psychology Association of North America (PPPANA) - [ARTICLE]

Ehara, Y. (1998). Sei b*oryoku n*eshon. T*oky*o, Keis*o Shob*o. - [BOOK]

Ehigiegba, A. E., D. O. Selo-Ojeme, et al. (1998). "Female circumcision and determinants in southern Nigeria." The East African medical journal : the organ of the Medical Association of East Africa 75(6): 374.- The East African medical journal : the organ of the Medical Association of East Africa - [ARTICLE]

El Dareer, A. (1982). Woman, why do you weep? : circumcision and its consequences. London
Westport, Conn., Zed Press ;
U.S. distributor L. Hill. - [BOOK]


Elamin, H. B. M. (1984). The Sudanese village midwife : sixty years experience; a study of the evolution of the Sudanese village midwives, their present and future function and their role in female circumcision, University of London. - [BOOK]

El-Gibaly, O., B. Ibrahim, et al. (2002). "The decline of female circumcision in Egypt: evidence and interpretation." Social science & medicine 54(2): 16.- Social science & medicine - [ARTICLE]

El-Gibaly, O. and Population Council. Policy Research Division. (1999). The decline of female circumcision in Egypt : evidence and interpretation. New York, N.Y. (One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York 10017), The Population Council. - [BOOK]

Eli-Gibaly, O. and et al. (2002). "The decline of female circumcision in Egypt: evidence and interpretation." Sage Family Studies Abstracts 24(3): 279-412.- Sage Family Studies Abstracts - [ARTICLE]

Eli-Gibaly, O. and et al. (2002). "The decline of female circumcision in Egypt: evidence and interpretation." Violence & Abuse Abstracts 8(3): 179-248.- Violence & Abuse Abstracts - [ARTICLE]

El-Issa, L. S. (1999). Reactions of African immigrants living in Houston, Texas, to the American media and legislation regarding female circumcision: xii, 116 leaves. [GENERIC]

El-Issa, L. S. (2000). Reactions of African immigrants living in Houston, Texas, to the American media and legislation regarding female circumcision. Ann Arbor, Mich., UMI: xii, 116 p. [GENERIC]

Elworthy, S., M. Assaad, et al. (1980). Female circumcision, excision, and infibulation : the facts and proposal for change. London, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

Elworthy, S. and E. Dorkenoo (1991). Female circumcision, excision and infibulation, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

Elworthy, S., E. Dorkenoo, et al. (1983). Female circumcision, excision, and infibulation : the facts and proposal for change. London, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

Elworthy, S., E. Dorkenoo, et al. (1985) Female circumcision, excision, and infibulation the facts and proposals for change. Minority Rights Group. 21 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Elworthy, S., E. Dorkenoo, et al. (1985). Female circumcision, excision, and infibulation : the facts and proposals for change. London, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

Endicott, K. M. and R. L. Welsch (2001). Taking sides : clashing views on controversial issues in anthropology. Guilford, Ct., McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. - [BOOK]

Endicott, K. M. and R. L. Welsch (2003). Taking sides : clashing views on controversial issues in anthropology. Guilford, Ct., McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. - [BOOK]

Erian, M. M. S. and J. T. W. Goh (1995). "Female circumcision." The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology 35(1): 3.- The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology - [ARTICLE]

Erickson, J. A. (1994). Deeper into circumcision : an invitation to awareness and guide to resources for researchers, parents, restorers, activists, and the merely curious : more than 300 sources of information about the male foreskin, foreskin amputation, foreskin restoration, intact foreskin rights advocacy, and more, plus more than 30 sources of information about female genital mutilation. Biloxi, Miss., J.A. Erickson. - [BOOK]

Erlich, M. (1986). La femme blessée : essai sur les mutilations sexuelles féminines. Paris, L'Harmattan. - [BOOK]

Ervin, M., T. King, et al. (1994). "On The Line." The Progressive 58(7): 11.- The Progressive - [ARTICLE]

Essâen, B. and C. Wilken-Jensen (2003). "How to deal with female circumcision as a health issue in the Nordic countries." Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 82(8): 683-686.- Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica - [ARTICLE]

Essen, B., B. Bodker, et al. (2002). "Research - Is there an association between female circumcision and perinatal death?" Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Bulletin de l'Organisation mondiale de la santâe 80(8): 4.- Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Bulletin de l'Organisation mondiale de la santâe - [ARTICLE]

Ethnic Affairs Commission of New South Wales. (1997). Female genital mutilation community education program : evaluation report. Ashfield, N.S.W., Ethnic Affairs Commission of NSW. - [BOOK]

Evans, R. (2000). Griots : singing their praises. - [BOOK]

Eyega, Z. and E. Conneely (1997). "Facts and Fiction Regarding Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation: A Pilot Study in New York City." Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 52(4): 174.- Journal of the American Medical Women's Association - [ARTICLE]

Family Law Council (Australia) (1994). Female genital mutilation : a report to the Attorney-General. Barton, A.C.T., The Council. - [BOOK]

Family Law Council (Australia) (1994). Female genital mutilation : discussion paper. Barton, A.C.T., The Council. - [BOOK]

Family Planning Association of Uganda. (2001). Results of the enumeration of female genital cutting cases in Kapchorwa district during the year 2000 : eradicating harmful practices but not cultural values. Kampala, Family Planning Association of Uganda. - [BOOK]

Fané, A. (1995). L'excision et la question de la promotion de la femme : analyse socio-juridique. Bamako, République du Mali Ministère des enseignements sécondaires supérieurs et de la recherche scientifique Direction nationale des enseignements supérieurs Ecole nationale d'administration. - [BOOK]

Farooqui, O. (1997). "Female circumcision - a fair cut for women?" The British journal of family planning 23(3): 96.- The British journal of family planning - [ARTICLE]

Favali, L. (2002). Fra legge e modelli ancestrali, prime osservazioni sulle mutilazioni genitali in Eritrea. Torino, G. Giappichelli. - [BOOK]

Fayy*a*d, M. h. (1998). al-Batr al-tan*asul*i lil-in*ath khit*an al-ban*at. al-Q*ahirah, D*ar al-Shur*uq. - [BOOK]

Feltman, J. A. (1995). Is there a definable universal morality? : an examination of female genital mutilation: vi, 120 leaves. [GENERIC]

Fernandez-Romano, C. (1999). "The Banning of Female Circumcision: Cultural Imperialism or a Triumph for Women's Rights?" Temple international and comparative law journal 13(1): 137.- Temple international and comparative law journal - [ARTICLE]

Fernandez-Romano, C. (2003). "The banning of female circumcision: cultural imperialism or a triumph for women's rights?" Peace Research Abstracts 40(2): 123-261.- Peace Research Abstracts - [ARTICLE]

Fernea, E. W. (1985). Women and the family in the Middle East : new voices of change. Austin, University of Texas Press. - [BOOK]

Fielder, T. D. (1999). Establishing women's rights in the international community : the case of female genital mutilation: 110 p. [GENERIC]

Filmakers Library inc. (2002) Asylum. Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (20 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Baaba Andoh, a young Ghanian woman, tells her story directly to the camera: how she went to see her father, whom she had never met, to ask his blessing on her impending marriage. His reaction was to arrange a marriage for her to an elderly man and to tell her she would be "circumcised." Baaba flees and when her father pusues her and offers a reward for her return to him, she has no choice but to leave her home with false papers and try to become a refugee in the United States. Her moving retelling of her story is alternated with a collage of still images and video of life in Ghana.

Filmakers Library inc. and Norway. Kgl. Utenriksdepartement. (1999) Senegal the power to change. Filmakers Library inc. 1 videocassette (29 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. WP 200 VC no.10 1999 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
The protest against female genital mutilation started with an educational program set up by the United Nations in cooperation with a local NGO. News of the declarations spread through the media, inspiring women in other villages to demand education and to take similar decisions. This is a success story which shows that education makes all the difference.

Filmakers Library inc. and RVU Educatieve Omroep. (2001) Een dorpstraject La route d'un village = Changing paths. Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (46 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording =]. GN 484 VC no.3 2001 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
In Mali ninety-three percent of the women are circumcised. This tradition is deeply rooted in village society. Astan Diallo travels to several villages on her moped, talking to men and women about the health hazards of circumcision. After five years, Astan's hard work does bring results as old traditions make way for new ones.

Flannery, D., E. D. Glover, et al. (1990). "Perspective on Female Circumcision: Traditional Practive or Health Risk?" Health values 14(5): 34.- Health values - [ARTICLE]

Foellmer, K. and Brandeis University. Dept. of Politics. (1996). Female genital mutilation. Waltham, Mass.,: 105 leaves. [GENERIC]

Folly, A. L., Amanou production (Firm), et al. (1994) Femmes aux yeux ouverts Women with open eyes. California Newsreel. 1 videocassette (52 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording =]. HQ1788 .F45 1994
305.42096 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Surveys social conditions faced by women in Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal and Benin, including circumcision, forced marriage, AIDS, and economic repression. Examines grass-roots efforts toward education and improvement as Africa opens to democracy.

Force, W. F. T. (1992). "Female circumcision Female genital mutilation." European journal of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive biology 45(2): 153.- European journal of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive biology - [ARTICLE]

Foster, C. (1994). "On the Trail of a Taboo: Female Circumcision in the Islamic World." The contemporary review 264(1540): 244.- The contemporary review - [ARTICLE]

Foundation for Research on Women's Health Productivity and the Environment., International Center for Research on Women., et al. (1999). Rites of passage : responses to female genital cutting in the Gambia. Washington, DC, International Center for Research on Women : Centre for Development and Population Activities. - [BOOK]

Francoeur, R. T. and W. J. Taverner (1998). Taking sides. Clashing views on controversial issues in human sexuality. Guilford, Conn., Dushkin/McGraw Hill. - [BOOK]
[The book] is a debate-style reader designed to introduce students to controversies in human sexuality. The readings, which represent the arguments of leading social commentators, educators, and sexologists, reflect a variety of viewpoints and have been selected for their liveliness and substance and because of their value in a debate framework. -Back cover. [The editor has] gathered 38 lively and thoughtful statements by articulate advocates on opposite sides of a variety of sexuality-related questions. -Pref.

Francoeur, R. T. and W. J. Taverner (2000). Taking sides. Clashing views on controversial issues in human sexuality. Guilford, Conn., Dushkin/McGraw-Hill. - [BOOK]

Frontiers in Reproductive Health (Project). (2002). Using operations research to strengthen programmes for encouraging abandonment of female genital cutting : report of a Consultative Meeting on Methodological Issues for FGC Research, April 9-11 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Washington, DC, Frontiers in Reproductive Health Population Council. - [BOOK]

Gachiri, E. W. (2000). Female circumcision : with reference to the Agikuyu of Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya, Paulines Publications Africa. - [BOOK]

Gali, M. A. (1997). Female circumcision : a transcultural study of attitudes, identity and reproductive health of East African immigrants: iv, 132 p. [GENERIC]

Gallo, P. G. and F. Viviani (1995). Female genital mutilation : a public health issue also in Italy : proceedings of the 1994 International Symposium on female genital mutilation [held] May 3rd, 1994, Pauda, Italy. Padua, UNI Press. - [BOOK]

Gathanju, D. R. (2001). Circumcision and baptism as seen through the eye of Christianity among the Agikuyu of Central Kenya: ix, 74 leaves. [GENERIC]

Gaughen, S. (2003). Women's rights. San Diego, Greenhaven Press. - [BOOK]

Gebauer, M. (1995). Singled out as the keepers of tradition : an exploration of female circumcision, excision and infibulation. - [BOOK]

Ghamunga, F. and World Vision Tanzania. Consultancy Services Unit. (2002). Project review : "advocating for FGM eradication in Tanzania". Arusha, Tanzania, WVT - Consultancy Services Unit. - [BOOK]

Gibbons, J. D. (1995). Circumcision--the pros and cons : index of new information. Washington, D.C., Abbe Publishers Association. - [BOOK]

Gilbert, E., C. Bayly, et al. (1997). Female genital mutilation : information for Australian health professionals. East Melbourne, Vic., Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. - [BOOK]

Gillette, I. (1998). La polygamie et l'excision dans l'immigration africaine en France analysées sous l'angle de la souffrance sociale des femmes. Villeneuve d'Ascq, Presses universitaires du Septentrion: 356 p. [GENERIC]

Gillette-Frenoy, I. and G.A.M.S. (Group : France) (1992). L'excision et sa présence en France : étude ethno-sociologique. Paris, Edition G.A.M.S. - [BOOK]

Giorgis, B. W. (1981). Female circumcision in Africa. Addis Ababa, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. - [BOOK]

Giorgis, B. W., United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa., et al. (1981). L'excision en Afrique. Addis-Abéba, Organisation des Nations Unies Commission économique pour l'Afrique Centre africain de recherches et de formation pour la femme et Association des femmes africaines pour la recherche sur le dévelopment. - [BOOK]

Gleviczky, A. (1980). Les Mutilations sexuelles féminines. Le mariage précoce. Lausanne Switzerland, Sentinelles. - [BOOK]

Godwyn, M. (2000). Is sociological theory useful in cases of extreme inequality: v, 212 p. [GENERIC]

Gollaher, D. (2000). Circumcision : a history of the world's most controversial surgery. New York, Basic Books. - [BOOK]

Gove, S., L. Diamondstone, et al. (1984). Medical team interaction with female circumcision in a refugee camp, Bo', Somalia. San Francisco, Calif., Institute for Health Policy Studies School of Medicine University of California San Francisco. - [BOOK]

Grassivaro Gallo, P. (1986) La circoncisione femminile in Somalia una ricerca sul campo. F. Angeli. 200 p. : ill., maps ; 22 cm. [microform]. GN484 .G73a - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Grassivaro Gallo, P. (1986). La circoncisione femminile in Somalia : una ricerca sul campo. Milano, Italy, F. Angeli. - [BOOK]

Grassivaro Gallo, P. (1998). Figlie d'Africa mutilate : indagini epidemiologiche sull'escissione in Italia. Torino, L'Harmattan Italia. - [BOOK]

Great Britain. (1985). Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985, H.M.S.O. - [BOOK]

Great Britain. (2003). Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 : Chapter 31. London, Stationery Office. - [BOOK]

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. (2003). A Bill to restate and amend the law relating to female genital mutilation, and for connected purposes. London, Stationery Office. - [BOOK]

Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp. (1983) The Greenham factor. Greenham Print Prop. 11 p. : ill., map ; 43 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Greunbaum, E. (2001). "The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective." Journal of sociology and social welfare 28(Part 2): 191.- Journal of sociology and social welfare - [ARTICLE]

Griffin, D., T. Solvang, et al. (1996) White hotel. Wake UP! Productions. 1 videocassette (90 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. RA644.A25 W447 1996 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
With video camera in hand, two women follow an American HIV research team to Eritrea, East Africa, and are catapulted into a land of joy and repression, promiscuity and sexual mutilation. They quickly are drawn into circumstances which shatter the film makers objectivity and turns their journalistic inquiry into an intimate investigation of their own capacities to love, suffer and forgive.

Gruenbaum and Gottlieb (2003). "BOOK REVIEWS - SINGLE REVIEWS (Reviewers in parentheses) - The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective." American anthropologist 105(3): 2.- American anthropologist - [ARTICLE]

Gruenbaum and J. Hastings (2002). "Book reviews - The female circumcision controversy: An anthropological perspective." American ethnologist 29(3): 1.- American ethnologist - [ARTICLE]

Gruenbaum, E. (1994). "Female Circumcision: Beliefs and Misbeliefs (Inter-African Committee)." American anthropologist 96(2): 488.- American anthropologist - [ARTICLE]

Gruenbaum, E. (1996). "The Cultural Debate over Female Circumcision: The Sudanese Are Arguing This One Out for Themselves." Medical anthropology quarterly 10(4): 21.- Medical anthropology quarterly - [ARTICLE]

Gruenbaum, E. (2001). The female circumcision controversy : an anthropological perspective. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. - [BOOK]
Ellen Gruenbaum looks at the validity of Western arguments against the practice of female circumcision. In doing so, she explores both outsider and insider perspectives on female circumcision, concentrating particularly on the complex attitudes of the individuals and groups who practice it and on indigenous efforts to end it. Gruenbaum finds that the criticisms of outsiders are frequently simplistic and fail to appreciate the diversity of cultural contexts, the complex meanings, and the conflicting responses to change. Drawing on over five years of fieldwork in Sudan, where the most severe forms of genital surgery are common, Gruenbaum shows that the practices of female circumcision are deeply embedded in Sudanese cultural traditions--in religious, moral, and aesthetic values, and in ideas about class, ethnicity, and gender. Her research illuminates both the resistance to and the acceptance of change. She shows that change is occurring as the result of economic and social developments, the influences of Islamic activists, the work of Sudanese health educators, and the efforts of educated African women. That does not mean that there is no role for outsiders, Gruenbaum asserts, and she offers suggestions for those who wish to help facilitate change. By presenting specific cultural contexts and human experiences with a deep knowledge of the tremendous variation of the practice and meaning of female circumcision, Gruenbaum provides an insightful analysis of the process of changing this complex, highly debated practice.

Gruenbaum, E. (2001). "The female circumcision controversy: an anthropological perspective." Violence & Abuse Abstracts 7(2).- Violence & Abuse Abstracts - [ARTICLE]

Gruenbaum, E. and C. Fluehr-Lobban (2001). "WOMEN - The Female Circumcision Controversy, an Anthropological Perspective." The Middle East journal 55(4): 1.- The Middle East journal - [ARTICLE]

Gruenbaum, E. and Gustave E. von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern Studies. (1990). Development schemes, cultural debates, and rural women's health in Sudan. Los Angeles, Calif., G.E. von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern Studies University of California Los Angeles. - [BOOK]

Gruenbaum, E. and C. M. Obermeyer (2001). "SCIENCE'S COMPASS - BOOKS ET AL - ANTHROPOLOGY: The Female Circumcision Controversy - An Anthropological Perspective." Science 292(5520): 1.- Science - [ARTICLE]

Gruhn, K. B. (1998). The flaws of a cultural tradition : a look at female genital mutilation: 51 leaves. [GENERIC]

Guinn, D. E. (2002). Faith on trial : communities of faith, the First Amendment, and the theory of deep diversity. Lanham, Md., Lexington Books. - [BOOK]

Hanly, M. G. and V. J. Ojeda (1995). "Epidermal inclusion cysts of the clitoris as a complication of female circumcision and pharaonic infibulation." Central African journal of medicine 41(1): 22.- Central African journal of medicine - [ARTICLE]

Hassan, S. S. (1996). La donna mutilata : la mutilazione genitale femminile : l'infibulazione. Firenze, Loggia de' Lanzi. - [BOOK]

Hayford, S. (1997). Between cultures : genital cutting, West African immigration, and national identity in France: 109 leaves. [GENERIC]

Heise, L. (1989). Crimes of gender. East Lansing, Mich., Women in International Development Michigan State University. - [BOOK]

Hellsten, S. K. (1999). "Pluralism in Multicultural Liberal Democracy and the Justification of Female Circumcision." Journal of Applied Philosophy 16(1): 15.- Journal of Applied Philosophy - [ARTICLE]

Hermann, C. (2000). Das Recht auf Weiblichkeit : Hoffnung im Kampf gegen die Genitalverstümmelung. Bonn, Dietz. - [BOOK]

Herrington, C. S. and American University (Washington D.C.). School of International Service. (1994). An examination of female genital alteration as an international human rights violation: ii, 92 leaves. [GENERIC]

Hetherington, P. (1998). "The Politics of Female Circumcision in the Central Province of Colonial Kenya, 1920-30." The Journal of imperial and commonwealth history 26(1): 34.- The Journal of imperial and commonwealth history - [ARTICLE]

Hicks, E. K. (1996). Infibulation : female mutilation in Islamic northeastern Africa. New Brunswick, N.J., Transaction Publishers. - [BOOK]

Hoffman, B. G. and University of California (System). Extension Center for Media and Independent Learning. (2002) Womanhood and circumcision three Maasai women have their say. University of California Extension Center for Media and Independent Learning. 1 videocassette (30 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. GN484 .W66 2002 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
"This thought-provoking documentary sensitively explores the cultural context of female genital-cutting practices among the Maasai. It will stimulate discussion and reflection in a wide variety of courses in cultural anthropology, women's and gender studies, African studies, and development studies"--Extension Center webpage.

Hofmann, I. (1996) If only they knew-- a documentary on female genital mutilation. 1 videocassette (30:00 min.) : sd., col. ; 3/4 in. + 1 production book (132 leaves). [videorecording]. GN484 .H64 1996 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Honarvar, M. (1997). Similarities and differences in the struggles of Moslem and Christian women in Nigeria: vi, 75 leaves. [GENERIC]

Horowitz, C. R. and J. C. Jackson (1997). "Female "Circumcision": African Women Confront American Medicine." Journal of general internal medicine : official journal of the Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine 12(8): 8.- Journal of general internal medicine : official journal of the Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine - [ARTICLE]

Hosken, F. P. (1995). Stop female genital mutilation : women speak : facts and actions. Lexington, MA, Women's International Network News. - [BOOK]

Hosken, F. P. and Women's International Network. (1980). Female sexual mutilations : the facts and proposals for action. Lexington, Mass., Women's International Network News. - [BOOK]

Hunter-Gault, C., Globalvision Inc., et al. (1995) Women's rights : a global movement. Chip Taylor Communications. 2 videocassettes (50 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
pt. 1. The fight against rape: presents an examination of evidence indicating that rape has become a conscious war strategy in many conflicts, including Bosnia, Kashmir, and Iraq, and includes interviews with experts and activists; it also looks at the emergence of a global women's movement, which is trying to get rape classified as a "crime against humanity." -- pt. 2. Alice Walker interview: Hunter-Gault interviews this Pulitzer prize-winning author who discusses her novel, Possessing the secret of joy, about an African woman who responds to the cultural tradition of female circumcision.

Hunter-Gault, C., Globalvision., et al. (1993) Genital mutilation. Globalvision. 1 videocassette (26:43 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Shown on 10/6/93, this segment of the human rights series Rights & wrongs, a "television magazine of human rights" with anchor Charlayne Hunter-Gault, focuses on female genital mutilation as a human rights issue.

Hunter-Gault, C., H. Masters, et al. (1993) Rights & wrongs. Video 3, Women under attack. Global Vision ;
Distributed by the Video Project. 1 videocassette (30 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Promotes increased awareness of the universality of the crime of rape and of the urgent need for human rights for women revealed by the systematic rape of women in Bosnia by Serbian soldiers. Includes reports on worldwide state sponsored violence towards women and the international human rights movement to stop the violence through documentation of events in order to establish criminal charges and bring the violators to justice. Victims offer testimony of events in Bosnia, Kashmir, and Peru and a rape room is shown in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq. Female genital mutilation in Africa and Asia is described in personal testimony as well as in an interview with Alice Walker about her documentary films. Scenes from Fire Eyes and Warrior Marks are shown to demonstrate how mutilation is often performed, and Walker reads from her novel Possessing the Secret of Joy.

Hunter-Gault, C., E. L. Ortiz, et al. (1993) Female circumcision. Globalvision : International Center for Global Communications Foundation Inc. 1 videocassette (27 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
In the first segment female genital mutilation in Africa and Asia is described in personal testimony as well as in an interview with Alice Walker about her documentary films. Scenes from Fire Eyes and Warrior Marks are shown to demonstrate how mutilation is often performed, and Walker reads from her novel Possessing the Secret of Joy, about an African woman who responds to the cultural tradition of female circumcision. The second segment examines the desperate plight of garbage pickers on Smokey Mountain garbage dump outside Manila in a video "Diary from Hell" which makes the link between the environment and human rights.

Hurley, M. C. and Canada. Bibliothèque du Parlement. Service de recherche. (1996). Projet de loi C-27 : Loi modifiant le Code criminel (prostitution chez les enfants, tourisme sexuel impliquant des enfants, harcèlement criminel et mutilation d'organes génitaux féminins). Ottawa, Bibliothèque du Parlement Service de recherche. - [BOOK]

Hurley, M. C. and Canada. Bibliothèque du Parlement. Service de recherche. (1997). Projet de loi C-27 : Loi modifiant le Code criminel (prostitution chez les enfants, tourisme sexuel impliquant des enfants, harcèlement criminel et mutilation d'organes génitaux féminins). Ottawa, Bibliothèque du Parlement Service de recherche. - [BOOK]

Hurley, M. C. and Canada. Library of Parliament. Research Branch. (1996). Bill C-27 : an Act to Amend the Criminal Code : child prostitution, child sex tourism, criminal harassment and female genital mutilation. Ottawa, Library of Parliament Research Branch. - [BOOK]

Hurley, M. C. and Canada. Library of Parliament. Research Branch. (1997). Bill C-27 : an Act to Amend the Criminal Code, Child Prostitution, Child Sex Tourism, Criminal Harassment and Female Genital Mutilation. Ottawa, Library of Parliament Research Branch. - [BOOK]

Huston, P., Federal Interdepartmental Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation., et al. (2000). Female genital mutilation and health care : current situation and legal status : recommendations to improve the health care of affected women. S.l., Health Canada. - [BOOK]

Ibrahim, H. E. B., H. E. Bashir, et al. (1995). Women and the agony of culture : strategies for the eradication of female genital mutilation in Sudan. Dhaka, Bangladesh, Printed by Orchid Printers. - [BOOK]

INS Resource Information Center. (1994). Female genital mutilation. Washington, D.C., INS Resource Information Center. - [BOOK]

Institute for Development Training. (1986). Module five : health effects of female circumcision. Chapel Hill, N.C., Institute for Development Training. - [BOOK]

Institute for Development Training. (1993). Female genital mutilation. Chapel Hill, N.C., Institute for Development Training. - [BOOK]

Institute for Policy Studies. Third World Women's Project. (1984) A dialogue on Third World women : learning through the humanities. The Project. 140 p., [4] p. of plates : ill. ; 28 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Inter-African Committee (Nigeria) on Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. (1997). Female genital mutilation in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria, Inter-African Committee (Nigeria) on Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. - [BOOK]

Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Newsletter. Geneva, Switzerland, The Committee: v. [GENERIC]

Islam, M. M. and M. M. Uddin (2001). "Female Circumcision in Sudan: Future Prospects and Strategies for Eradication." International family planning perspectives 27(Part 2): 71-76.- International family planning perspectives - [ARTICLE]

Ivan, P. (1998) Female circumcision reasons, rights and relativism. National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada. 2 microfiches. [microform]. 100 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Izett, S. and N. Toubia (1999). Learning about social change : a research and evaluation guidebook using female circumcision as a case study. New York, NY, RAINBO (Research Action & Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women). - [BOOK]

Jafri, G. J. (2002). "The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological Perspective (by Ellen Gruenbaum)." The American journal of Islamic social sciences 19(Part 4): 128-131.- The American journal of Islamic social sciences - [ARTICLE]

Jam**iyat B*a Bakr Badr*i al-*Ilm*iyah (1984). Action report of the Workshop: Africn [sic] Women Speak on Female Circumcision, Khartom [sic], October 21-25 1984. Omdrman, Babiker Badri Scientific Assoc. for Women Studies. - [BOOK]

Jam**iyat B*a Bakr Badr*i al-*Ilm*iyah (1984). Case studies presented at the Workshop: African Women Speak on Female Circumcision, Khartoum, Octobr [sic] 21-25 1984. Omdrman, Babiker Badri Scientific Assoc. for Women Studies. - [BOOK]

James S. Coleman African Studies Center. (1994). Gender in Africa. Los Angeles, Calif., James S. Coleman African Studies Center UCLA. - [BOOK]

James, S. A. (1994). "Reconciling International Human Rights and Cultural Relativism: The Case of Female Circumcision." Bioethics 8(1): 1-26.- Bioethics - [ARTICLE]

James, S. M. (1998). "Viewpoint - Shades of Othering: Reflections on Female Circumcision/ Genital Mutilation." Signs 23(4): 18.- Signs - [ARTICLE]

James, S. M. and C. C. Robertson (2002). Genital cutting and transnational sisterhood : disputing U.S. polemics. Urbana, Ill.
Wantage, University of Illinois Press ;
University Presses Marketing. - [BOOK]


James, S. M. and C. C. Robertson (2002). Genital cutting and transnational sisterhood : disputing U.S. polemics. Urbana, University of Illinois Press. - [BOOK]

Jawad, H. A. (1998). The rights of women in Islam : an authentic approach. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire
New York, Macmillan Press ;
St. Martin's Press. - [BOOK]


Jawad, H. A. and NetLibrary Inc. (1998). The rights of women in Islam an authentic approach. New York, St. Martin's Press: ix, 150 p. [GENERIC]

Jegede, O., R. Boehm, et al. (2001). FGM (female genital mutilation) : an institutional approach to the management of the health of women with FGM : information for health care professionals : summary of a qualitative study conducted in Edmonton, Alberta. Edmonton, HERA. - [BOOK]

Jegede, O., R. Rodrigues, et al. (2001). FGM (female genital mutilation) : an institutional approach to the management of the health of women with FGM : information for health care professionals. Edmonton, HERA. - [BOOK]

John, H. D. (1998). "Female Circumcision: Persistence Amid Conflict." Health Care For Women International 19(6): 477.- Health Care For Women International - [ARTICLE]

Johnson, K. E. and S. Rodgers (1994). "When cultural practices are health risks: The dilemma of female circumcision." Holistic nursing practice 8(2): 70.- Holistic nursing practice - [ARTICLE]

Jordan, J. A. (1994). "Female genital mutilation (female circumcision)." British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 101(2): 94.- British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology - [ARTICLE]

Josiah, E. M. (1990). Female circumcision. Nairobi, Kenya, Uzima Press. - [BOOK]

Josiah, M. (1990). Female circumcision. Nairobi, Uzima Press. - [BOOK]

K*irbirjir, I. i. a. i., K. i. R*and*ulf, et al. (2000) al-*Si*h*hah wa-*huq*uq al-ins*an niq*a*t tal*aq : *h*alat al-tashw*ih al-jins*i lil-in*ath. Q*uwat al-*Amal al-Ma*n*iyah li-Muk*afa*hat Khit*an al-Ban*at Markaz al-Ma*l*um*at al-Lajnah al-Qawm*iyah lil-Muna*z*zam*at ghayr al-*Huk*um*iyah. 40 leaves ; 30 cm. [microform]. Microfiche 2003/52008 (H) - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Kalla, K. A. (1992). The socio-cultural forces surrounding female circumcision in Northern Sudan and the status of women's reproductive health in the region: vii, 43 leaves. [GENERIC]

Kamara, C. H., Cellule de coordination sur les pratiques traditionnelles affectant la santé des femmes et des enfants., et al. (1998). Guinea means woman : Guinea's national efforts in the fight against female genital mutilation. New York, NY, RAINBO. - [BOOK]

Karanja, D. N. (1999). Sisters in the slaughter houses of Kenya : hear their cries : understanding female genital mutilation and the pastoral care needs of survivors: viii, 182 l. [GENERIC]

Karanja, S. W. (1998). Calling the church into solidarity with women fighting against female genital mutiation: iv, 57 leaves. [GENERIC]

Karim, M. (1998). Female genital mutilation (circumcision) : historical, social, religious, sexual, and legal aspects : illustrated. Cairo, s.n. - [BOOK]

Karim, M. and R. Ammar (1965). Female circumcision and sexual desire. Cairo, U.A.R., Ain Shams University Press. - [BOOK]

Kasaian, M. (1982). Influence of the female circumcision controversy on Kikuyu-missionary relations: iv, 79 leaves. [GENERIC]

Kasinga, F. and L. M. Bashir (1998). Do they hear you when you cry? London, Bantam. - [BOOK]

Kassindja, F. and L. M. Bashir (1998). Do they hear you when you cry. London, Bantam. - [BOOK]

Kassindja, F. and L. M. Bashir (1998). Do they hear you when you cry. New York, Dell Pub. - [BOOK]

Kassindja, F. and L. M. Bashir (1998). Do they hear you when you cry. New York, N.Y., Delacorte press. - [BOOK]

Kassindja, F. and L. M. Bashir (1999). Nos oyen cuando lloramos? Barcelona, Plaza & Janés. - [BOOK]

Kassindja, F. and L. M. Bashir (1999). Do they hear you when you cry. New York, N.Y., Delta. - [BOOK]

Kassindja, F., L. M. Bashir, et al. (1999). Fauj*iya no sakebi. T*oky*o, Son*i Magajinzu. - [BOOK]

Kassindja, F., L. M. Bashir, et al. (1998) Do they hear you when you cry. Bantam Doubleday Dell Audio Pub. 4 sound cassettes (360 min.) : analog, Dolby processed. [sound recording /]. JV6601 .K372 1998 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Kaudjhis-Offoumou, F. A. and G. Niangoran-Bouah (1994). Mariage en Côte d'Ivoire, de la polygamie á la monogamie : essai, suivi de Réflexion sur l'excision. Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, KOF Editions. - [BOOK]

Kebede, S. (1986). Eradicating female circumcision in Ethiopia through health education: xiii, 98 leaves. [GENERIC]

Kedar, M. (2002). "Islamic Law and Medical Ethics -- Recent Applications - Islam and "Female Circumcision", the Dispute Over FGM in the Egyptian Press, September 1994." Medicine and law 21(2): 403.- Medicine and law - [ARTICLE]

Kéïta, D. S. (2001). Excision : douleur de femme : pour une stratégie de communication en faveur de la lutte contre l'excision en Côte d'Ivoire. Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, Edilis. - [BOOK]

Kelly, J. M. (1993). Female genital mutilation : a search for its origins: vi, 154 leaves. [GENERIC]

Kennet, W. and Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords. (1983). A bill intituled an Act to prohibit female circumcision. London, H.M.S.O. - [BOOK]

Kessler, C. (2000). No condition is permanent. New York, Philomel Books. - [BOOK]
When shy fourteen-year-old Jodie accompanies her anthropologist mother to live in Sierra Leone, she befriends a local girl but encounters a cultural divide that cannot be crossed.

Key, F. L. (1997). "Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation in the United States: Legislation and Its Implications for Health Providers." Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 52(4): 179.- Journal of the American Medical Women's Association - [ARTICLE]

Kheir, H. M., K. Sushil, et al. (1991). Female circumcision : attitudes and practices in Sudan. S.l., s.n. - [BOOK]

Kibor, J. Z. (1998) Persistence of female circumcision among the Marakwet of Kenya a biblical response to a rite of passage. xiii, 293 leaves : maps ; 28 cm. [microform]. GN484 .K43 1998a - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Kibor, J. Z. (1998). Persistence of female circumcision among the Marakwet of Kenya : a biblical response to a rite of passage: xiii, 293 leaves. [GENERIC]

King, M. (1997). Western intervention to eradicate female genital mutilation : balancing effective tactics while mediating cultural sensitivity. Waltham, Mass.,: 30 leaves. [GENERIC]

Kirberger, E., K. Randolph, et al. (1995). Intersections between health and human rights : the case of female genital mutilation. New York, NY, RAINBO. - [BOOK]
"This report is based on a one-day workshop, organized and sponsored by RAINBO. The workshop was held June 25, 1995 at the National Council on International Health (NCIH)..." -- Intro.

Kiwasila, H. L. and Women Research and Documentation Project. (1998). Traditional practices affecting women's health : the case of female circumcision among the Wavidunda of Kidodi in Kilosa District, Morogoro Region. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Women's Research and Documentation Project. - [BOOK]

Klein, A. J. (1923) East Africa. American Museum of Natural History. 1 videocassette (14 min.) : si., b&w ; 3/4 in. [videorecording]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
This film is comprised of fragments that are probably out-takes of Alfred J. Klein's Equatorial Africa: Roosevelt's hunting grounds, made in 1923. It opens with a celebration surrounding the female circumcision ceremony of young Kikuyu girls. (the operation, a clitoridectomy itself is filmed but the quality of the film is so rough that the viewer must know beforehand what is being viewed). The scene moves to a dance performed by Bantu people, probably in Uganda. Masai moran are shown drinking blood from a freshly killed ox. The film ends with footage of a lion-spearing by Masai (or Nandi) people.

Kluge, E. H. (1993). "Female circumcision: When medical ethics confronts cultural values." CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne 148(2): 288.- CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne - [ARTICLE]

Kmietowicz, Z. (2000). "MPs recommend tightening the law on female circumcision." British Medical Journal 321(7273): 1365a.- British Medical Journal - [ARTICLE]

Knott, J. F. (1907). "Normal" ovariotomy, "female" circumcision, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. New York,. - [BOOK]

Knott, L. (1996). "Female Circumcision in Britain." Maternal & child health 21(5): 127.- Maternal & child health - [ARTICLE]

Knudsen, C. O. (1994). The falling dawadawa tree : female circumcision in developing Ghana. Højbjerg, Denmark
Brooklyn, NY, Intervention Press ;
Distributed in North America by Smyrna Press. - [BOOK]


Kopelman, L. M. (1994). "Female Circumcision/Genital Mutilation and Ethical Relativism." Second opinion 20(2): 55.- Second opinion - [ARTICLE]

Koppel, T. (1996) ABC News Nightline [female genital mutilation]. ABC News. 1 videocassette (25 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Ted Koppel examines the practice of female genital mutilation, also called female circumsion. The program specifically focusses on whether the United States should grant asylum to women who flee their native country and come to the U.S. because of their fear of this practice. He interviews David Martin, General Counsel for the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and Fauziya Kassindja, a young woman from Togo seeking asylum to escape female circumcision.

Koso-Thomas, O. (1987). Circumcision of women : a strategy for eradication. London ; Atlantic Highlands, N.J., Zed Books. - [BOOK]

Kratz, C. A. (1999). Contexts, controversies, dilemmas : teaching circumcision. - [BOOK]

Kroll, G. L. and L. Miller (2000). "CASE REPORTS - Vulvar epithelial inclusion cyst as a late complication of childhood female traditional genital surgery - Clitoral prepuce epidermal inclusion cyst formation was seen in an adolescent as a late sequela of female circumcision in infancy." American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 183(2): 2.- American journal of obstetrics and gynecology - [ARTICLE]

Kvindernes u-landsudvalg (Denmark) and DANIDA. (1995). Report from the Seminar on Female Genital Mutilation, Copenhagen, May 29, 1995. Copenhagen, Danida. - [BOOK]

La Maestra Family Health Center. FC/FGM Task Force Project. (2000). Female circumcision/female genital mutilation : an introductory manual for health care providers. San Diego, Calif., The Center. - [BOOK]

Ladipo, O. A. and S. A. Akinso (2002). Harmful traditional practices and HIV/AIDS. Ibadan Nigeria, Association for Reproductive and Family Health (ARFH). - [BOOK]

Lalonde, A. and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (1999). Female circumcision--female genital mutilation [slide] : clinical management of circumcised women. Washington, D.C., American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. - [BOOK]
Explains the historical and cultural significance of female circumcision/female genital mutilation (FC/FGM) and its prevalence worldwide; describes the various types of FC/FGM and the management protocols; highlights the skills necessary for delivering appropriate care to circumcised women; and covers legal and ethical issues pertaining to FC/FGM.

Lamoine, J.-M. (2001). La figure de la mutilation féminine dans deux romans : L'excisée et Tu T'appelleras Tanga: vi, 97 leaves. [GENERIC]

Larsen, U. (2002). "The Effects of Type of Female Circumcision on Infertility and Fertility in Sudan." Journal of Biosocial Science 34(3): 15.- Journal of Biosocial Science - [ARTICLE]

Larsen, U. and F. E. Okonofua (2002). "Female circumcision and obstetric complications." International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics : the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 77(3): 12.- International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics : the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics - [ARTICLE]

Larsen, U. and S. Yan (2000). "GENDER CONTEXTS OF FERTILITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - Does Female Circumcision Affect Infertility and Fertility? A Study of the Central African Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, and Tanzania." Demography 37(3): 10.- Demography - [ARTICLE]

Lefeuvre-Déotte, M. (1997). L'excision en procès : un différend culturel? Paris, L'Harmattan. - [BOOK]

Lefkowitz, M. R. (2000). Aetius on clitoridectomy. S.l.
Lexington, KY, Mary R. Lefkowitz ;
Diotima. [GENERIC]

Provides a detailed description of the method used to perform clitoridectomy in ancient Egypt. This account comes from Aetius and has been translated from the original Greek by Mary R. Lefkowitz.

Leonard, L. (1996). "Female circumcision in southern Chad: Origins, meaning, and current practice." Social science & medicine 43(2): 10.- Social science & medicine - [ARTICLE]

Leonard, L. (2000). ""We Did It for Pleasure Only": Hearing Alternative Tales of Female Circumcision." Qualitative Inquiry 6(2): 212-228.- Qualitative Inquiry - [ARTICLE]

Levine, R. A. (1992). Exploration of reproductive rituals : female circumcision, menstrual taboos, and menopause from a biological perspective: 92 leaves. [GENERIC]

Li, X., D. T. Wasserman, et al. (2001). Tolerating the intolerable : the case of female genital mutilation. College Park, Md., School of Public Affairs University of Maryland. - [BOOK]

Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989). Prisoners of ritual : an odyssey into female genital circumcision in Africa. New York, Haworth Press. - [BOOK]

Lightfoot-Klein, H. (1989). Prisoners of ritual : an odyssey into female genital circumcision in Africa. New York, Harrington Park Press. - [BOOK]

Lightfoot-Klein, H. (2002). Secret wounds. United States, Hanny Lightfoot-Klein. - [BOOK]

Lockhat, H. (2004). Female genital mutilation : understanding the physical and psychological needs of women. London, Middlesex University Press. - [BOOK]

Lutkehaus, N. and P. B. Roscoe (1995). Gender rituals : female initiation in Melanesia. New York, Routledge. - [BOOK]

Lynch, M. E. and S. M. H. Alibhar (1993). "Male and female circumcision not equivalent." CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne 149(1): n.p.- CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne - [ARTICLE]

Mabala, R. and UNICEF. Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office. (1998). Daughter of a lioness. Nairobi, Kenya, UNICEF-ESARO. - [BOOK]

Mahdi Ali, D. (1985) Dhibaatooyinka caafimaad ee gudniinka. Kulliyada Caafimaadka Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaliyeed? 20 leaves ; 30 cm. [microform /]. GN484 .M35 1985 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Mahdi Ali, D. (1985). Dhibaatooyinka caafimaad ee gudniinka. Muqdisho?, Kulliyada Caafimaadka Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaliyeed? - [BOOK]

Mahdi Ali, D. (1985). Female circumcision in Somalia : medical and social implications. Mogadishu, Somalia, Available from Somali Academy of Sciences and Arts : Faculty of Medicine Somali National University. - [BOOK]

Mahdi Ali, D., Akademiyada Cilmiga Fanka iyo Suugaanta (Somalia), et al. (1985) Female circumcision in Somalia medical and social implications. Somali Academy of Sciences and Arts. 150 p., [5] leaves of plates : ill., map ; 25 cm. [microform]. RG104.2 .M34 1985a - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Mali. Commissariat à la promotion des femmes., Population Council., et al. (1998). Rapport du Seminaire national pour la definition d'une strategie d'eradication de l'excision. Mali, Le Commissariat. - [BOOK]

Malone, L. A. and G. Wood (1997). "In re Kasinga - U S Board of Immigration Appeals ruling on political asylum claim based on fear of forced female circumcision in applicant's home country." The American journal of international law 91(1): 121.- The American journal of international law - [ARTICLE]

Manresa, K. and I. Ramos Rioja (1999). Le jour où Kadi a perdu une partie de sa vie. Arles, Actes Sud. - [BOOK]

Manresa, K., I. Ramos Rioja, et al. (1998). El día que Kadi perdió parte de su vida. Barcelona, Blume. - [BOOK]

Manresa, K., I. I. Ramos Rioja, et al. (1998). The day Kadi lost part of her life. North Melbourne, Vic., Spinifex. - [BOOK]

Mansaray, K. (1988). Female circumcision, fertility control, women's roles, and the patrilineage in modern Sierra Leone : a functional analysis. - [BOOK]

Marvasti, J. A. (2000). Child suffering in the world : child maltreatment by parents, culture and governments in different countries and cultures. Manchester, Conn., Published in the U.S.A. by Sexual Trauma Center Publication. - [BOOK]

Massachusetts School of Law at Andover. (1999) Worldwide treatment of women. Massachusetts School of Law. 1 videocassette : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. HQ1236 .W67 1999 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Masterson, J. M., J. H. Swanson, et al. (2000). Female genital cutting : breaking the silence, enabling change. Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women : Centre for Development and Population Activities. - [BOOK]

Mathiot, E. M. (1983). Genital mutilation : everywoman's problem. East Lansing, Women in International Development Michigan State University. - [BOOK]

Mathis, D., A. Samad, et al. (2001) Healthy behavior. Female genital mutilation. AHEAD Inc. 1 videocassette (33 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. GN484 .H421 2001 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
A panel of representatives discuss social causes and other issues of female genital mutilation providing background and proposing courses of action to address the issue.

Mayer-Hohdahl, M., Journeyman Pictures (Firm), et al. (1998) Female circumcision human rites. Films for the Humanities & Sciences. 1 videocassette (41 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. WP 200 VC no.11 1998
GN484 .F36 1998a - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Documents the ritual of female genital mutilation (female circumcision), practiced among some African groups. This video also explores its roots in myth; and discusses movements underway to ban the practice.

Mayer-Hohdahl, M., S. Thomas, et al. (1998). Female circumcision human rites. Princeton, NJ, Films for the Humanities & Sciences. [GENERIC]
Documents the ritual of female genital mutilation (female circumcision), practiced among some African groups. This video also explores its roots in myth; and discusses movements underway to ban the practice.

Mazzetti, M. and Fondazione Cariplo per le iniziative e lo studio della multietnicità. (2000). Senza le ali : le mutilazioni genitali femminili. Milano, Italy, FrancoAngeli. - [BOOK]

McGraw, P. W. (2000). Hush! Hush! Somebody's calling my name. Arkansas, Aduana Pub. Co. - [BOOK]

McLean, S. and M. Assaad (1980). Female circumcision, excision and infibulation : the facts and proposals for change. London, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

McLean, S. and S. E. Graham (1983). Female circumcision, excision and infibulation : the facts and proposals for change. London, Minority Rights Group. - [BOOK]

McSwiney, M. M. and P. R. Saunders (1992). "Female Circumcision: A Risk Factor in Postpartum Haemorrhage." Journal of postgraduate medicine XXXVIII(3): 136-137.- Journal of postgraduate medicine - [ARTICLE]

MetaMedia (Firm) and World Vision Canada. (1996) Evening the odds the story of the girl child. World Vision Canada. 1 videocassette (30 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 1 guide (16 p. : 1 ill. ; 22 cm.). [videorecording]. HQ792.2 .E93 1996 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Examines the lack of opportunity for girls in many developing countries by looking at the issues of early marriage, child prostitution and female genital mutilation.

Metcalf, C., D. Kogbara, et al. (1998) Welcome to womanhood. Bullfrog Films. 1 videocassette (13 min., 49 sec.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. HQ1233 .W451 1998 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
In a follow-up to the 1996 documentary The Cutting Edge, BBC-TV correspondent, Donu Kogbara returns to the Kapchorwe region of Uganda to look at the success and failure of the REACH project in northern Uganda which tried to replace the dangerous practice of female genital mutilation with ceremonies for the exchange of cattle and gifts to welcome young girls into the adult community.

Metcalf, C., D. Kogbara, et al. (2001) Welcome to womanhood. Bullfrog Films. 1 videocassette (13 min., 49 sec.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. GN484 .W453 2001 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
In a follow-up to the 1996 documentary The Cutting Edge, BBC-TV correspondent, Donu Kogbara returns to the Kapchorwe region of Uganda to look at the success and failure of the REACH project in northern Uganda which tried to replace the dangerous practice of female genital mutilation with ceremonies for the exchange of cattle and gifts to welcome young girls into the adult community.

Mire, S. (1994) Fire eyes female circumcision. distributed by Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (60 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. WP 200 VC no.8 1994
GN484 .F57 1994
392.14 F514 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Explores the socio-economic, psychological, and medical consequences of this ancient custom which affects more than 80 million women worldwide.

Mire, S., Persistent Productions., et al. (1994) Fire eyes a film. Filmakers Library. 1 videocassette (60 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. GN484 .F57 1994 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Fire eyes explores the socio-economic, psychological and medical consequences of the ancient custom of female circumcision which is performed on more than 80 million women worldwide. In this film, several women who have experienced this "rite of passage" voice varying points of view on perpetuating the practice.

Mohamud, O. A. (1989). Female circumcision and child mortality in urban Somalia: iv, 47 leaves. [GENERIC]

Moisan, M. (1995). Les mutilations génitales des femmes : une pratique qui doit disparaître. Québec, Gouvernement du Québec Conseil du statut de la femme. - [BOOK]

Montagu, A. (1995). "Mutilated Humanity." The Humanist 55(4): 12.- The Humanist - [ARTICLE]

Morris, D., Partridge Films., et al. (1997) The gender wars. Discovery Channel Video. 1 videocassette (50 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Look at the recent struggle for equality between the sexes. Originally, there was a primitove balance between the sexes, but when people left the village for the city, the natural balance disappeared. Find out the origin of honeymoons and other tools of male dominance like wedding rings and female circumcision. Travel to Finland for the annual wife-carrying contest celebrating the capture of women from other villages. Follow the rise of feminism, from turn-of-the-century suffragettes to the National Organization for Women.

Morris, D., Partridge Films., et al. (1997) The gender wars. Discovery Channel Video ;
manufactured and distributed by BMG Video. 1 videocassette (ca. 50 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. 305.3 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Look at the recent struggle for equality between the sexes. Originally, there was a primitive balance between the sexes, but when people left the village for the city, the natural balance disappeared. Find out the origin of honeymoons and other tools of male dominance like wedding rings and female circumcision. Travel to Finland for the annual wife-carrying contest celebrating the capture of women from other villages. Follow the rise of feminism, from turn-of-the-century suffragettes to the National Organization for Women.

Morris, R. (1996). "The Culture of Female Circumcision." ANS, Advances in nursing science 19(2): 11.- ANS, Advances in nursing science - [ARTICLE]

Morris, R. I., C. Gulino, et al. (2001). Reproductive health promotion in special populations : a modular curriculum for medicine, nursing and public health. San Diego, San Diego State University. - [BOOK]

Morris, R. I., C. K. Gulino, et al. (1998). Participant guide for female genital mutilation, a hidden danger : the Region IX Office on Women's Health one day workshop on a little understood cultural practice, April 18, 1998, Montezuma Hall, Aztec Student Center, San Diego State University. San Diego, CA, School of Nursing College of Health and Human Services San Diego State University ;. - [BOOK]

Moseley, A., R. Norman, et al. (2002). Human rights and military intervention. Aldershot, Hants ; Burlington, Ashgate Pub. Co. - [BOOK]

Mottin Sylla, M. H. (1991). Excision au Sénégal : informer pour agir. Dakar, ENDA Tiers-Monde. - [BOOK]

Munta*sir, K. a. and S. a. B*is*i (2003). al-Khit*an wa-al-*unf *didda al-mar*ah. Cairo, D*ar al-*Ayn lil-Nashr. - [BOOK]

Murray, J. (1974). The Kikuyu female circumcision controversy : with special reference to the Church Missionary Society's "sphere of influence": xi, 388 leaves. [GENERIC]

Murray, J. (1974). The Kikuyu female circumcision controversy : with special reference to the Church Missionary Society's "sphere of influence": xi, 388 leaves. [GENERIC]

Mwangi, R. and M. Smith-Stoner (2002). "Clinical Concerns - Caring for the Patient Who Has Undergone Female Circumcision." Home healthcare nurse 20(1): 6.- Home healthcare nurse - [ARTICLE]

Myers, R. A. (1986). Female and male perceptions of female genital operations in six southern Nigerian ethnic groups. East Lansing, MI, Michigan State University. - [BOOK]

Nabia, A. (1991). L'excision feminine : rapport d'enquête. N'Djaména, Tchad, République du Tchad Ministère du plan et de la coopération. - [BOOK]

National Committee on Traditional Practices of Ethiopia. (1994). NCTPE newsletter. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, National Committee on Traditional Practices of Ethiopia: v. [GENERIC]

National Committee on Traditional Practices of Ethiopia. (1998). Baseline survey on harmful traditional practices in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, National Committee on Traditional Practices of Ethiopia. - [BOOK]

Natsoulas, T. (1998). "The Politiecization of the Ban on Female Circumcision and the Rise of the I dependent School Movement in Kenya: The KCA, the Missions and Government." Journal of Asian and African studies 33(2): 22.- Journal of Asian and African studies - [ARTICLE]

Newell, K. S., E. Ross, et al. (2000). Discrimination against the girl child : female infanticide, female genital cutting and honor killing. Washington, DC,, Youth Advocate Program International. - [BOOK]

Ngunjiri, P. (1993). A report on a dissemination workshop on female circumcision. Nairobi?, Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Organization. - [BOOK]

Ngunjiri, P., Maendeleo Ya Wanawake (Organization : Nairobi Kenya), et al. (1993). A report on a dissemination workshop on female circumcision. Nairobi?, Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Organization : Program for Appropriate Technology in Health. - [BOOK]

Nigerian Philosophical Association. (1994). [Papers presented at the International Conference on Gender Conflict: the African and European Perspectives]. Nigeria, Nigerian Philosophical Association. - [BOOK]

Nikiema, B. and D. Kaboré (1990) Ma fille ne sera pas excisée. Médiathèque des trois mondes. 1 videocassette (71 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
The film discusses the African custom of female cirsumcision in Burkina Faso in a form that is both documentary and fiction. This practice often results in injury, even death.

Nimako, D. A. (2001). Mutilated. Tema, Ghana, Ronna Publishers. - [BOOK]

Njambi, W. N. (2001). Colonizing bodies a feminist science studies critique of anti-FGM discourse. Blacksburg, Va., University Libraries Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. [GENERIC]
The contentious topic of female circumcision brings together medical science, women's health activism, and national and international policy-making in pursuit of the common goal of protecting female bodies from harm. To date, most criticisms of female circumcision, practiced mainly in parts of Africa and Southwest Asia, have revolved around the dual issues of control of female bodies by a male-dominated social order and the health impacts surrounding the psychology of female sexuality and the functioning of female sex organs. As such, the recently-evolved campaign to eradicate female circumcision, alternatively termed "Female Genital Mutilation" (FGM), has formed into a discourse intertwining the politics of feminist activism with scientific knowledge and medical knowledge of the female body and sexuality. This project focuses on the ways in which this discourse constructs particular definitions of bodies and sexuality in a quest to generalize the practices of female circumcision as "harmful" and therefore dangerous. Given that the discourse aimed at eradicating practices of female circumcision, referred to in this study as "anti-FGM discourse,"focuses mostly on harm done to women's bodies, this project critiques the assumption of universalism regarding female bodies and sexuality that is explicitly/implicitly embedded in such discourse. By questioning such universals, I look at the ways in which different stories regarding bodies and sexuality can emerge at the gaps of the anti-FGM discourse regarding female circumcision practices. I.e., are there other possible avenues for envisioning bodies which are subjugated and hence eliminated from the view by their rhetoric? While the main assumption within anti-FGM discourse is that bodies and sexuality are naturally given and therefore universal, contemporary theories in STS and feminism have stressed that bodies and sexualities are figures of historical and political performances, and that knowledge about them is locally situated.

Nour, N. M. (2000). "Female circumcision and genital mutilation: A practical and sensitive approach - Large numbers of young women who have undergone this procedure now live in the United States You can provide better care for such patients by learning more about circumcision, its complications, and ways to prevent obstetrical problems." Contemporary ob/gyn 45(3): 10.- Contemporary ob/gyn - [ARTICLE]

Nyangweso, M. (2002). "Christ's Salvific Message and the Nandi Ritual of Female Circumcision." Theological studies 63(3): 22.- Theological studies - [ARTICLE]

Obermeyer, C. M. (2003). "The Health Consequences of Female Circumcision: Science, Advocacy, and Standards of Evidence." Medical anthropology quarterly 17(3): 19.- Medical anthropology quarterly - [ARTICLE]

Obiora, L. A. (1997). "The Little Foxes That Spoil The Vine: Revisiting The Feminist Critique of Female Circumcision." Canadian journal of women and the law = Revue juridique La femme et le droit 9(1): 46.- Canadian journal of women and the law = Revue juridique La femme et le droit - [ARTICLE]

Obiora, L. A. (1997). "Bridges and Barricades: Rethinking Polemics and Intransigence in the Campaign Against Female Circumcision." Case Western Reserve law review 47(2): 275.- Case Western Reserve law review - [ARTICLE]

O'Connell, M., C. Pearson, et al. (2001) Africa's children. Films for the Humanities & Sciences. 1 videocassette (58 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. HQ1240.5.K4 A47 2001 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Explores the pressures on female adolescents in the Third World through the stories of four young Kenyan women growing up in a time of cultural upheaval: Christine, a Maasai who escaped an arranged marriage so she could study law; Dekha, bought up in a rigidly patriarchal Muslim town, who aspires to be a doctor; Anastasia, who works on her family's farm while yearning to become a Catholic nun; and Mboone, who dreams of exchanging her affluent urban lifestyle for a career of service in the U.N., to help inprove the lives of women all over the world. Female circumcision, polygyny, AIDS, reproductive choice, equal access to education, and other issues are discussed with candor.

Odey, J. (1986). Ritual circumcision in Ezza and the Christian faith. S.l., s.n. - [BOOK]

Odeyemi, T. (2000) Female genital mutilation in Ife East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. xi, 101 leaves : ill., charts, maps ; 28 cm. [microform /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Odeyemi, T. (2000). Female genital mutilation in Ife East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria: xi, 101 leaves. [GENERIC]

Oishi, Y. (2003). Underlying issues affecting success in the elimination of female circumcision. - [BOOK]

Okroi, E. (2001). Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung im Sudan = "Female genital mutilation". Hamburg, Akademos Wissenschaftsverlag. - [BOOK]

Okwubanego, J. T. (1999). "Comments - Female Circumcision and the Girl Child in Africa and the Middle East: The Eyes of the World are Blind to the Conquered." The International Lawyer 33(1): 30.- The International Lawyer - [ARTICLE]

Omoyibo, K. U. (2002). Adolescent females' reproductive health in Nigeria : a study on the legislation and socio-cultural impediments to abortion and against female cicumcision. Frankfurt am Main ; New York, Peter Lang. - [BOOK]

Omoyibo, K. U. (2002). Adolescent females' reproductive health in Nigeria : a study on the legislation and socio-cultural impediments to abortion and against female circumcision. Frankfurt am Main, Lang: xv, 194 p. [GENERIC]

Omoyibo, K. U. (2003). Adolescent females' reproductive health in Nigeria : a study on the legislation and socio-cultural impediments to abortion and against female cicumcision. Frankfurt am Main ; New York, Peter Lang. - [BOOK]

Ontario Human Rights Commission. (1996). Policy on female genital mutilation (FGM). Toronto, The Commission. [GENERIC]

Oosterveld, V. (1993). "Refugee Status for Female Circumcision Fugitives: Building a Canadian Precedent." University of Toronto Faculty of Law review 51(2): 277.- University of Toronto Faculty of Law review - [ARTICLE]

Osman El-Tom, A. (1998). "Female circumcision and ethnic identification in Sudan with special reference to the Berti of Darfur1." GeoJournal 46(2): 8.- GeoJournal - [ARTICLE]

Owumi, B. E. (1997). Primary health care in Nigeria : female circumcision / edited by Bernard E. Owumi. Ibadan, Nigeria, Dept. of Sociology University of Ibadan. - [BOOK]

Oy*ewùmí, O. â. (2003). African women and feminism : reflecting on the politics of sisterhood. Trenton, NJ, Africa World Press. - [BOOK]

Paltiel, C. T., M. E. Dupont, et al. (1994) To tell a story. UNICEF Division of Communication. 1 videocassette (30 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. HQ798 .R54 1994 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Presents the stories of the coming of age of girls from Nicaragua, India, Jamaica, and Burkina Faso, West Africa. Puberty is too often the beginning of a life of abuse and early death in many societies.

Parker, M. (1995). "Rethinking female circumcision." Africa 65(4): 19.- Africa - [ARTICLE]

Paul, E. L. (2002). Taking sides. Clashing views on controversial issues in sex and gender. Guilford, Conn., McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. - [BOOK]

Paul, E. L. (2003) Taking sides. Clashing views on controversial issues in sex and gender. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic. Sound disc : digital, mono. ; 4 3/4 in. [sound recording /]. 306.7 T - [AUDIOVISUAL]
[The book] is a debate style reader designed to introduce students to controversies in sex and gender. The readings, which represent the arguments of leading sociologists and social commentators, reflect a variety of viewpoints and have been selected for their liveliness and substance and because their value in a debate framework.... It is this ... development of critical thinking skills that is the ultimate purpose of [this book]. -Back cover.

Payton, A. L. (2001). Women actors in the female circumcision debate and the emergence of alternative rites in Kenya: viii, 144 leaves. [GENERIC]

Peller, A. (2002). Chiffrierte Körper, disziplinierte Körper : female genital cutting : rituelle Verwundung als Statussymbol. Berlin, Weissensee. - [BOOK]

Perry, S. and C. M. Schenck (2001). Eye to eye : women practising development across cultures. New York, Zed Books. - [BOOK]

Pimsleur, J., K. Johnson, et al. (1997) Le Pari de Bintou Bintou in Paris. Documentary Educational Resources. 1 videocassette (17 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording =]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
This video provides a basis for discussion about the complex traditional, social, and familial context in which African parents decide whether or not to excise their daughters.

Polden, G. I., S. Helvik, et al. (2000) Senegal the power to change. Filmakers Library inc. 1 videocassette (30 min.) : sd., col ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. DT549.4 .S463 2000 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
The protest against female genital mutilation started with an educational program set up by the United Nations in cooperation with a local NGO. News of the declarations spread through the media, inspiring women in other villages to demand education and to take similar decisions. This is a success story which shows that education makes all the difference.

Price-Thompson, T. (2004). A woman's worth : a novel. New York, One World. - [BOOK]

Pridie, E. D. (1945). Female circumsision in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Khartoum, Sudan Medical Service. - [BOOK]

Program for Appropriate Technology in Health. (1993). Qualitative research report on female circumcision in four districts in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya, The Program. - [BOOK]

Quebec (Province). Conseil du statut de la femme. and M. Moisan (1995). Female genital mutilation : a practice that must end. Québec, Gouvernement du Québec Conseil du statut de la femme. - [BOOK]

Québec (Province). Conseil du statut de la femme. and M. Moisan (1995). Les mutilations génitales des femmes : une pratique qui doit disparaître. Québec, Gouvernement du Québec Conseil du statut de la femme. - [BOOK]

Queensland. Bureau of Ethnic Affairs. (1995). Report of the female genital excision seminar : August 2, 1995. Kangaroo Point Qld., Bureau of Ethnic Affairs Community Development & Planning. - [BOOK]

Queensland. Bureau of Ethnic Affairs. and Queensland. Dept. of Family and Community Services. (1995). Report of the Female Genital Excision Seminar held on Wednesday 2, August 1995. Brisbane, Qld., Bureau of Ethnic Affairs. - [BOOK]

Queensland. Law Reform Commission. (1993). Female genital mutilation : research paper. Brisbane, The Commission. - [BOOK]

Queensland. Law Reform Commission. (1994). Female genital mutilation. Brisbane, The Commission. - [BOOK]

Queensland. Law Reform Commission. (1994). Female genital mutilation. Brisbane, The Commission. - [BOOK]

Radosh, P. (1995) Cross cultural comparisons. Western Illinois University Board of Governors University ;
RMI Media distributor. 2 videocassettes : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. HQ1075 .C76 1995 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Two class lectures dealing with male and female roles in non-American cultures. The first lecture focuses on marriage customs in India, footbinding in China, and female circumcision in Islamic societies. The second lecture focuses on China, Sweden, and the former Soviet Union as examples of societies that are working towards equality for women.

Radosh, P. and Western Illinois University. School of Extended and Continuing Education. (1995) Cross cultural comparisons. Western Illinois University ;
distributed by Insight Media. 2 videocassettes (120 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. HQ1075 .C76 1995
305.3 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Examines male and female roles in cultures outside of the United States. The first lecture focuses on marriage customs in India, footbinding in China, and female circumcision in Islamic societies. The second lecture focuses on China, Sweden, and the former Soviet Union as examples of societies that are working towards equality for women.

Rahman, A., N. Toubia, et al. (2000). Female genital mutilation : a guide to laws and policies worldwide. London ; New York, Zed Books. - [BOOK]

RAINBO (Organization) (1998). Hadithi. New York, NY, RAINBO: v. [GENERIC]

Ramos, I. and K. Manresa (1998). The day Kadi lost part of her life. North Melbourne, Vic., Spinifex. - [BOOK]

Ramos, I. and K. Manresa (1999). The day Kadi lost part of her life. North Melbourne, Vic.
Hadleigh, Spinifex ;
BRAD. - [BOOK]


Read, D. and Foundation for Women's Health Research and Development. Out of sight, out of mind? : the report of a survey into inter-agency policies and procedures relating to female genital mutilation (FGM) in England and Wales. London, FORWARD. - [BOOK]

Reason, L. L. (2000). Female genital cutting among the Kassena-Nankana of Northern Ghana : the relationship between education and perceptions of health risk: iv, 33 leaves. [GENERIC]

Reason, L. L. (2002). Cultural evolutionary processes and the transmission of attitudes toward female genital cutting among the Kassena-Nankana of northern Ghana: xvi, 314 p. [GENERIC]

Remain Intact Organization. Ephemeral materials, 1987. Larchwood, IA. - [BOOK]

Rendell, R. (1999). "Assault on women - Ruth Rendell calls for some serious re-education on female circumcision." Nursing standard 14(7): 2.- Nursing standard - [ARTICLE]

Restall, J. (1999). Female genital mutilation : a grassroots reform strategy. - [BOOK]

Reyers, M. M. J. (1993). Het besnijden van meisjes : een leven lang leed en pijn. Amsterdam, Boom. - [BOOK]

Rindl, D. and Sallie Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture. (1998). Seeds of desire. London, Rindle. - [BOOK]

Roald, A. S. (2001). Women in Islam : the Western experience. London ; New York, Routledge. - [BOOK]
The position of women in Islam is the subject of ongoing debates in both the Muslim world and the West. Women in Islam investigates this debate and illustrates the ways in which Islamic perceptions of women and gender relations tend to undergo significant change in Western Muslim communities. Roald shows how this cultural encounter gives rise to fresh interpretations of Islamic texts, promoting new Islamic understandings in relation to issues of gender.

Robison, L. M. (1994). Female circumcision : cultural tradition or cultural oppression?: 51 leaves. [GENERIC]

Robison, L. M. (1998). Female genital mutilation/female circumcision : obstetrical nursing supervisor's knowledge and exposure: 2, vi, 65 leaves. [GENERIC]

Rose, S. and New South Wales. Parliamentary Library. (1994). Female genital mutilation. Sydney, NSW Parliamentary Library. - [BOOK]

Roshan, S., P. C. V. Quisumbing, et al. (1998). Symposium on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and Children. Summit, N.J., The Network. - [BOOK]

Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. (1997). Female genital mutilation : a pamphlet for health professionals. East Melbourne, Victoria, The Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. - [BOOK]

Rubin, E. (2000). When cultures collide : an exploration of cultural competence and cross-cultural communication between American medical providers and immigrant women who have been circumcised: xii, 232 leaves. [GENERIC]

Rude-Antoine, E. (1992). L'Immigration face aux lois de la République. Paris, Karthala. - [BOOK]

Rushwan, H. (1990). "Female circumcision." World health : published for the non-technical reader by the World Health Organization: 24.- World health : published for the non-technical reader by the World Health Organization - [ARTICLE]

Rushwan, H. (1995). "Female circumcision." World health : published for the non-technical reader by the World Health Organization 48: 2.- World health : published for the non-technical reader by the World Health Organization - [ARTICLE]

Rushwan, H. and J*ami*at al-Khar*t*um. Kull*iyat al-*Tibb. (1983). Female circumcision in the Sudan : prevalence, complications, attitudes, and change : a report of a study conducted by the Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan, 1977-1982. Khartoum, The Faculty. - [BOOK]

Rushwan, H. and United Nations Fund for Population Activities. Country Support Team for the Arab States. Health consequences of female genital mutilation : a health provider's perspective. Amman, Jordan, UNFPA Regional Office of the Country Support Team for the Arab States. - [BOOK]

Russell-Robinson, J. (1997). African female circumcision and the missionary mentality. - [BOOK]

Sahami, S. (1995). Female genital mutilation : a conspiracy of survival: viii, 47 leaves. [GENERIC]

Salama, S. H. (1980). My sister's keeper? : a new perspective of female circumcision: iii, 103 leaves. [GENERIC]

Salem, N. (1999). Female circumcision : the power of tradition: vii, 44 leaves. [GENERIC]

Sanderson, L. P. (1986) Female genital mutilation, excision and infibulation a bibliography. The Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights. 72 p. ; 21 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Sanderson, L. P. (1986). Female genital mutilation, excision and infibulation : a bibliography. London, The Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights. - [BOOK]

Sanderson, L. P. and Anti-slavery Society (Great Britain) (1986) Female genital mutilation excision and infibulation : a bibliography. Anti-Slavery Society for the Protection of Human Rights 1986. 72 p. ; 21 cm. [microform]. JC571 .H93 1022 Doc. 66 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Sanin, K. (1996). The universality of human rights laws for women : the case of female circumcision: 104, [35] leaves. [GENERIC]

Sarkis, M. M. (2002). The roles and challenges of NGOs and NPOs working on the eradication of FGC : the NOCIRC case study: vii, 176 leaves. [GENERIC]

Saurel, R. (1985). Bouches cousues : les mutilations sexuelles féminines et le milieu médical. Paris, Tierce. - [BOOK]

Sawyer, F. and ABC News. (1994) Scarred for life. ABC News. 1 videocassette (24 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. GN484 .S4 1994
392.14 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

A discussion of female genital mutilation (female circumcision) which affects some 100 million women from different cultures around the world.

Schnüll, P. and Terre des Femmes (Firm) (1999). Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung : eine fundamentale Menschenrechtsverletzung ; Textsammlung. Göttingen, s.n. - [BOOK]

Schuler, M. (1992). Freedom from violence : women's strategies from around the world. New York, NY (Widbooks, P.O. Box 20109, Dag Hammarskjold Convenience Center, New York 10017), OEF International : Distributed by UNIFEM. - [BOOK]

Schulze, K. E., M. Stokes, et al. (1996). Nationalism, minorities and diasporas : identities and rights in the Middle East. London ; New York, Tauris Academic Studies. - [BOOK]

Scott, S. (2000). "The deepest cust of all." Chatelaine 73(11): 191.- Chatelaine - [ARTICLE]

Shafiq, V., M. Morgan, et al. (1999) The season of planting girls. Presented by Media House; Arab Film Distribution. 1 videocassette (37 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. 392.14 S52 1999 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Documentary about female circumcision in Egypt.

Sharpe, L. M. (1993). Towards universal human rights : an evaluation of female circumcision and its cultural context. - [BOOK]
Studies "the practice of female circumcision from a universal human rights perspective with cultural relativist considerations". --Abstract.

Shaw, E. S. and University of Arizona. College of Nursing. (1984) Female circumcision/excision. The University. 1 videocassette (24 min.) : sd., col. ; 3/4 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Defines five levels of female circumcision performed in various countries. Discusses physical complications which can occur and mental problems believed to occur in later life. Outlines rationale used for excision. Identifies concerns of some women who have been excised and are now living in the United States.

Shell-Duncan, B. (2001). "The medicalization of female "circumcision": harm reduction or promotion of a dangerous practice?" Social science & medicine 52(7): 16.- Social science & medicine - [ARTICLE]

Shell-Duncan, B. and Y. Hernlund (2000). Female "circumcision" in Africa : culture, controversy, and change. Boulder, Lynne Rienner Publishers. - [BOOK]

Shell-Duncan, B. and Y. Hernlund (2001). Female "circumcision" in Africa : culture, controversy, and change. Boulder, Lynne Rienner Publishers. - [BOOK]

Shell-Duncan, B. and Y. Hernlund (2001). "SCIENCE'S COMPASS - BOOKS ET AL - ANTHROPOLOGY: Female "Circumcision " in Africa - Culture, Controversy, and Change." Science 292(5520): 1305.- Science - [ARTICLE]

Shell-Duncan, B. and Y. Hernlund (2003). "The female circumcision controversy: an anthropological perspective - Ellen Gruenbaum; University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 2001, pp 242, price 55 00 cloth, 24 95 paper." Social science & medicine 56(2): 2.- Social science & medicine - [ARTICLE]

Shermarke, M. A. A. (1996) Understanding the Canadian community context of female circumcision. National Library of Canada Acquisitons and Bibliographic Services Branch. 124 leaves : map. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Shermarke, M. A. A. (1997) Understanding the Canadian community context of female circumcision. National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada. 2 microfiches. [microform]. 360 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Shorten, A. (1995). "Female circumcision: Understanding special needs." Holistic nursing practice 9(2): 66.- Holistic nursing practice - [ARTICLE]

Sissoko, C. O., O. Motandi, et al. (1991) Finzan. California Newsreel distributor. 1 videocassette (107 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + guide. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
The story of two women steadfastly resisting the oppression of tradition. After the death of her husband, Nanyuma goes against tradition by refusing to marry her brother-in-law. The younger Fili tries to escape the ritual of female circumcision.

Sisto, P., L. M. Hanley, et al. (1997) Penny Sisto fiber artist. Road Trip Productions and Penny Sisto. 1 videocassette (45 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Chronicles the life of artist, midwife, and storyteller, Penny Sisto. She takes the viewer through her early life in the Orkney Islands to her life as a midwife amongst the Masai people of Africa, and concludes with her present work and life in America. These extraordinary stories are illustrated with beautiful, powerful images from her art.

Skelton, T. and T. Allen (1999). Culture and global change. London ; New York, Routledge. - [BOOK]

Skramstad, H. (1990). The fluid meanings of female circumcision in a multiethnic context in Gambia : distribution of knowledge and linkages to sexuality. Bergen, DERAP Development Research and Action Programme Chr. Michelsen Institute Dept. of Social Science and Development. - [BOOK]

Smith, J., Defence for Children International. Afdeling Nederland., et al. (1995). Visions and discussions on genital mutilation of girls : an international survey. The Hague, Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Directorate General for International Cooperation Development Cooperation Information Dept. - [BOOK]

Smith, J., H. v. d. Weide, et al. (1992). Visies en discussies rond genitale verminking van meisjes : een inventarisatie in international perspectief. Amsterdam, Defence for Children International Afdeling Nederland. - [BOOK]

Snively, J. (1994) Female bodies, male politics women and the female circumcision controversy in Kenyan colonial discourse. National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada. 2 microfiches. [microform]. 300 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Somach, S. D. and Center for Applied Linguistics. (1996). Female circumcision : female genital mutilation (FGM) : resource packet. Washington, D.C., Refugee Service Center Center for Applied Linguistics. - [BOOK]
The material in this packet, which includes a bibliography, selected resources, and an overview on the subject, was collected as a result of a task force convened by the Department of State's Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration between December 1995 and March 1996 to examine cultural orientation for refugees.

Somali Women's Dem. Organization. and Associazione italiana donne per lo sviluppo. (1988). Female circumcision : strategies to bring about change : international seminar, Mogadisho, 13-16th June 1988 : [papers]. Mogadishu?
Rome, Somali Women Democratic Organization ;
Italian Association for Women in Development. - [BOOK]


Souris, S. (1997). "Possessing the Secret of Joy, THE MULTIPLE NARRATOR NOVEL, AND THE PRACTICE OF "FEMALE CIRCUMCISION"." CLA journal 40(4): 27.- CLA journal - [ARTICLE]

St. Mary's University (San Antonio Tex.). President's Peace Commission San Antonio Tex. Program (1998 31 Mar.-2 Apr.), N. V. Demleitner, et al. (1998) Clashing cultures children of immigrants. St. Mary's University Learning Resources Center. 1 videocassette (46 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. JV6600 .S256 1998 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Ms. Cecilia Aguilar, member of the President's Peace Commission, presents Dr. Nora V. Demleitner, professor at St. Mary's University School of Law, Mr. Terence S. Coonan, attorney-at-law for the Immigration Law Office of Joseph B. DeMott, and Mr. Peter Vallecillo, administrator of the Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights Under Law of Texas. The speakers discuss current U.S. legal responses to three distinct problems affecting children of immigrants in this country: female circumcision, bonded child labor, and recent California and U.S. national initiatives toward curtailing welfare benefits, particularly for immigrants.

Stewart, J. L. (1998). Effects of female genital mutilation on its survivors. Pasadena, CA, Pacific Oaks College: iii, 388 leaves. [GENERIC]

Stewart, R. (1997). "Female Circumcision: Implications for North American Nurses." Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services 35(4): 4.- Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services - [ARTICLE]

Stølen, K. A. and M. Vaa (1991). Gender and change in developing countries. Oslo
Oxford, Norwegian University Press ;
Distributed world-wide excluding Scandinavia by Oxford University Press. - [BOOK]


Strange, P. (1983) It'll make a man of you : a feminist view of the arms race. Mushroom. 31 p. : ill. ; 21 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Strong-Leek, L. M. (1994). Excising the spiritual, physical and psychological self : an analysis of female circumcision in the works of Flora Nwapa, Ngugi Wa Thiongo, and Alice Walker: iv, 216 leaves. [GENERIC]

Strong-Leek, L. M. (1994). Excising the spiritual, physical and psychological self : an analysis of female circumcision in the works of Flora Nwapa, Ngugi Wa Thiongo, and Alice Walker: iv, 216 p. [GENERIC]

Strong-Leek, L. M. (1994) Excising the spiritual, physical and psychological self : an analysis of female circumcision in the works of Flora Nwapa, Ngugi Wa Thiongo, and Alice Walker. iv, 216 leaves ; 29 cm. [microform /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Strong-Leek, L. M. (1994). Excising the spiritual, physical and psychological self : an analysis of female circumcision in the works of Flora Nwapa, Ngugi Wa Thiongo, and Alice Walker: iv, 216 leaves. [GENERIC]

Sudan. Ma*sla*hat al-Ri**ayah al-Ijtim*a**iyah. and UNICEF. Sudan Country Office. (1984). al-Khif*a*d wa-al-mujtama*. al-Khar*t*um, al-Ma*sla*hah. - [BOOK]

Sweden. Socialdepartementet. (1981). Kvinnlig omskärelse. Stockholm, Socialdepartementet : LiberFörlag. - [BOOK]

*T*ah*a, M. h. u. A. h. (1995). Khit*an al-in*ath bayna al-tajr*im wa-al-mashr*u**iyah. Egypt, D*ar al-Nah*dah al-*Arab*iyah. - [BOOK]

Taylor, V. (2003). "Female genital mutilation: cultural practice or child abuse? The issues around female circumcision are discussed." Paediatric nursing 15(Part 1): 31-33.- Paediatric nursing - [ARTICLE]

Thabet, S. M. A. and A. S. M. A. Thabet (2003). "Defective sexuality and female circumcision: The cause and the possible management." The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 29(1): 12-19.- The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research - [ARTICLE]

Thomas, L. M. (1995). The politics of the 1956 ban on clitoridectomy in Meru, Kenya. Nairobi, University of Nairobi Dept. of History. - [BOOK]

Thomas, L. M. (1997). Regulating reproduction : state interventions into fertility and sexuality in rural Kenya, c. 1920-1970: xiii, 415 leaves. [GENERIC]

Thomas, L. M. (2003). Politics of the womb : women, reproduction, and the state in Kenya. Berkeley, University of California Press. - [BOOK]

Thomas, S., M. Mayer-Hohdahl, et al. (1998) Female circumcision human rites. Films for the Humanities & Sciences. 1 videodisc (41 min.) : sd., col. ; 4 3/4 in. [videorecording]. GN484 .F46 1998 DVD - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Documents the ritual of female genital mutilation (female circumcision), practiced among some African groups. This video also explores its roots in myth; and discusses movements underway to ban the practice.

Thompson, B. and A. Thompson (1993). "Female Circumcision in Sierra Leone: Medico-legal Perspectives." World medical journal 40(3-4): 36.- World medical journal - [ARTICLE]

Tostan (Organisation : Senegal) (1999). Eclosion au Sénégal : le processus qui a mis fin à l'excision dans 174 villages. Dakar, Tostan. - [BOOK]

Tostan (Organization : Senegal) (1999). Breakthrough in Senegal: the process that ended female genital cutting in 31 villages, Senegal : s.n. - [BOOK]

Tostan (Organization), International Center for Research on Women., et al. (1999). Empowering villages to end female genital cutting : community programs in Senegal. Washington, DC, International Center for Research on Women : Centre for Development and Population Activities. - [BOOK]

Toubia, N. (1993). Female genital mutilation : a call for global action. Ny, Ny, Women Ink. - [BOOK]

Toubia, N. (1994). "Female Circumcision as a Public Health Issue." The New England journal of medicine 331(11): 712.- The New England journal of medicine - [ARTICLE]

Toubia, N. (1995). Female genital mutilation : a call for global action. New York, Rainbo : Women Ink. - [BOOK]

Toubia, N. (1999). Caring for women with circumcision : a technical manual for health care providers. New York, Research Action and Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBO). - [BOOK]

Toubia, N., S. Izett, et al. (1998). Female genital mutilation : an overview. Geneva, World Health Organization. - [BOOK]

Toubia, N. and A. Rahman (2000). Female genital mutilation : a human rights analysis ; a practical guide to worldwise laws and practices. London, Zed. - [BOOK]

Toubia, N. and World Bank. Human Development Dept. (1995). Mutilation génitale féminine : appel à la mobilisation mondiale. Washington, D.C., World Bank Human Development Dept. - [BOOK]

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Touré, Y., Y. F. Koné, et al. (1999). Une loi contre l'excision au Mali? : opportunites obstacles strategies. Bamako, Mali, Le Centre. - [BOOK]

Touré, Y., Y. F. Koné, et al. (1999). Une loi contre l'excision au Mali? : opportunités, obstacles, stratégies. Bamako, Mali, Centre Djoliba. - [BOOK]

Traoré, K. and C. F. Coulibaly (2000). Forum national des leaders religieux musulmans sur le thème de l'excision : du 13 au 15 mai 2000 : rapport. Bamako, Plan International Mali : Centre Djoliba. - [BOOK]

U.D.H.S. (Organization) (1990). Horumarka haweenka. Mogadishu?, Ururka. - [BOOK]

Ukemenam, L. B. (1995). Taking a bath? Newark, New Jersey, St. Candid House. - [BOOK]

Ullah, H. K. (1999). The public/private logic of the role of female circumcision-female genital mutilation movements in the 20th century: 109 leaves. [GENERIC]

Umunna, M. (1997). Female circumcision : the perceptions of first generation African immigrants in America: vi, 43 leaves. [GENERIC]

United Nations Centre for Human Rights. (1995). Harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children. Geneva, Switzerland ; New York, Centre for Human Rights. - [BOOK]

United Nations Development Fund for Women. and Bureau régional de l'UNIFEM à Dakar. (1997). Les mutilations génitales féminines. Dakar, Senegal, Bureau régional de l'UNIFEM à Dakar. - [BOOK]

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1995). Harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children. Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. - [BOOK]

United States. Dept. of State. Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues. (2001). Female genital mutilation (FGM) : report on female genital mutilation as required by conference report (H. rept. 106-997) to public law 106-429 (Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001). Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of State. - [BOOK]

United States. Dept. of State. Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues. (2002). Country reports on female genital mutilation (FGM) or female genital cutting (FGC). Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of State. - [BOOK]

United States. Dept. of State. Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues. (2002). Report on female genital mutilation as required by Conference Report (H. rept. 106-997) to Public Law 106-429 : (Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001). Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of State. - [BOOK]

University of Chicago. Law School. Health Law Seminar., D. Orentlicher, et al. (1992). [Seminar papers from the Health Law seminar]. - [BOOK]

Urban, J. L. (1998). Engendering (hu)man rights : international relations postcolonial feminism, female circumcision/female genital mutilation and veiling: 146 leaves. [GENERIC]

USAID Intra-Agency Working Group on Female Genital Cutting. (1999). Female genital cutting : the facts and the myths : FGC Symposium : USAID final report. Washington, DC, USAID Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC. - [BOOK]

Utulu, R. E. (2001). The psychosocial burden of the girl-child in Nigeria : traditional practices. Ibadan, Nigeria, Stirling-Horden. - [BOOK]

Vail, A. (1999). Taking sides. Clashing views on controversial issues in family and personal relationships. Guilford, Conn., Dushkin Pub. Group. - [BOOK]

Van Der Kwaak, A. (1992). "Female circumcision and gender identity: a questionable alliance?" Social science & medicine 35(6): 777.- Social science & medicine - [ARTICLE]

Vickers, L. (2003). "Women's rights - Cpd accredited: Miscellaneous - Current legislation does not go far enough when it comes to prosecuting those who carry out female circumcision, argues Lesley Vickers." The Solicitors' journal 147(3): 2.- The Solicitors' journal - [ARTICLE]

Vickers, R. R. (1996). Gender based persecution and United States asylum policy : female circumcision as a case study: 139 leaves. [GENERIC]

W*a*sif, N. a. (1999). al-Ba*hth f*i anm*a*t al-dhuk*urah wa-khit*an al-in*ath f*i Mi*sr. Egypt, al-Markaz al-Wa*tan*i li-Mus*anadat al-Muna*z*zam*at al-Ahl*iyah lil-Sukk*an wa-al-Tanm*iyah. - [BOOK]
Female circumcision; families; Egypt.

Walker, A. (1992). Possessing the secret of joy. New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. - [BOOK]

Walker, A. (1995). Yorokobi no himitsu. T*oky*o, Sh*ueisha. - [BOOK]

Walker, A. (1996). Possessing the secret of joy. Boston, Compass Press. - [BOOK]

Walker, A. (1997). Possessing the secret of joy. New York, Washington Square Press. - [BOOK]

Walker, A. and S.-m. Ch*oe (1992). *Unmirhan kipp*um *ul kanjik hamy*o : Aelis*u W*ok**o changp*y*on sos*ol. S*oul-si, Munhak Segyesa. - [BOOK]

Walker, A., G. Greenwood, et al. (2000) Alice Walker Possessing the secret of joy. Films for the Humanities & Sciences. 1 videocassette (51 min.) : sd., col. with b&w sequences ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. PS3573.A425 Z465 2000
813.54 - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Alice Walker talks about her novel "Possessing the secret of joy" which addresses issues of female genital mutilation, and social protest in Africa and America. Filmed segments, including archival film, illustrates some of the points made.

Walker, A., C. Hunter-Gault, et al. (1995) Women's rights a global movement. Part 2. Chip Taylor Communications. 1 videocassette (16 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. 305.42 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
A program about ritual female circumcision. Includes interviews with several researchers, including Alice Walker, a Pulitzer prize-winning author who discusses her novel, Possessing the secret of joy, about an African woman who responds to the cultural tradition of female circumcision.

Walker, A. and P. Parmar (1993). Warrior marks : female genital mutilation and the sexual blindings of women. London, Jonathan Cape. - [BOOK]

Walker, A. and P. Parmar (1993). Warrior marks : female genital mutilation and the sexual blinding of women. New York, Harcourt Brace. - [BOOK]

Walker, A. and P. Parmar (1996). Warrior marks : female genital mutilation and the sexual blinding of women. San Diego, Harcourt Brace. - [BOOK]

Walker, A., P. Parmar, et al. (1993) Warrior marks. Distributed by Women Make Movies. 1 videocassette (54 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. GN 484 VC no.1 1993
GN484 .W352 1993
392 W151wa - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Documentary about female genital mutilation in Africa. Includes interviews with victims, activists against female circumcision, and circumsizers.

Walker, L. R. and M. C. Morgan (1995). "Female Circumcision: A Report of Four Adolescents." Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 17(2): 5.- Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine - [ARTICLE]

Wallace, D. A. (1997). The politicization of female circumcision in America : will new legislation help to eradicate this ancient practice?: 50 leaves. [GENERIC]

Walters, B., ABC News., et al. (1997) 20/20 [videorecording] : Mutilation of the female genital 7/20/97. ABCNews Home Video. 1 videocassette (20 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Reports on the mutilation of young girls in villages around the world.

Ware, H. R. E. (1981) Women, demography and development. Australian National University. viii, 242 p. ; 25 cm. [microform /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

Warzazi, H. E. and United Nations. Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. (1989). Study on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children : preliminary report. Geneva, United Nations. - [BOOK]

Warzazi, H. E. and United Nations. Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. (1997). Follow-up report of the special rapporteur on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children. Geneva, United Nations. - [BOOK]

Warzazi, H. E. and United Nations. Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. (1998). Second report on the situation regarding the elimination of traditional practices affecting the health of women and the girl child. Geneva, United Nations. - [BOOK]

Warzazi, H. E. and United Nations. Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. (1999). Third report on the situation regarding the elimination of traditional practices affecting the health of women and the girl child. Geneva, United Nations. - [BOOK]

Warzazi, H. E. and United Nations. Sub-commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights. (2000). Fourth report on the situation regarding the elimination of traditional practices affecting the health of women and the girl child. Geneva, United Nations. - [BOOK]

Watson, M. A., S. Montgomery, et al. (1998) Rites of passage videocases of traditional African peoples. M.A. Watson and S. Montgomery. 2 videocassettes (92 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. + 1 instructor's manual (45 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.). [videorecording]. DT433.54 .R57 1998 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Through interviews, Kenyans describe the rites of passage of birth, naming, circumcision, marriage, elderhood, and death as they are commonly ritualized and celebrated in traditional African villages. Includes traditional African music and/or dance segments related to the observed rituals.

Webber, S. and T. Schonfeld (2003). "Cutting History, Cutting Culture: Female Circumcision in the United States." American Journal of Bioethics 3(2): 65-66.- American Journal of Bioethics - [ARTICLE]

Weidenweber, S. (2003). Escaping the twilight. Portland, OR, Arnica Pub. - [BOOK]

Welsch, R. L. and K. M. Endicott (2003). Taking sides : clashing views on controversial issues in cultural anthropology. Guilford, Ct., McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. - [BOOK]
This [text] is a debate-style reader designed to introduce students to controversies in cultural anthropology. The readings, which represent the arguments of leading anthropologists and educators, reflect a variety of viewpoints, and have been selected for their liveliness and substance, their relevance to the topics included in college-level study of cultural anthropology, and because of their value in a debate framework.--Back cover.

Welsch, R. L. and K. M. Endicott (2003) Taking sides clashing views on controversial issues in cultural anthropology. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic. Sound disc : digital, mono. ; 4 3/4 in. [sound recording]. 306 T - [AUDIOVISUAL]
This [text] is a debate-style reader designed to introduce students to controversies in cultural anthropology. The readings, which represent the arguments of leading anthropologists and educators, reflect a variety of viewpoints, and have been selected for their liveliness and substance, their relevance to the topics included in college-level study of cultural anthropology, and because of their value in a debate framework. -Back cover.

Welsh, S. Female circumcision [slides]. - [BOOK]

Williams, L. and T. Sobieszczyk (1997). "Attitudes Surrounding the Continuation of Female Circumcision in the Sudan: Passing the Tradition to the Next Generation." Journal of marriage and the family 59(4): 16.- Journal of marriage and the family - [ARTICLE]

Williams, P. N. (1997). "A Personal Perspective on the Elimination of Female Circumcision." Case Western Reserve law review 47(2): 491.- Case Western Reserve law review - [ARTICLE]

Williams-Garcia, R. (2004). No laughter here. New York, HarperCollins. - [BOOK]
In Queens, New York, ten-year-old Akilah is determined to find out why her closest friend, Victoria, is silent and withdrawn after returning from a trip to her homeland, Nigeria.

Wing, A. K. (2000). Global critical race feminism : an international reader. New York, New York University Press. - [BOOK]

Winkel, E. (1995). "A Muslim Perspective on Female Circumcision." Women & health 23(1): 8.- Women & health - [ARTICLE]

Women Issues Communications Services Agency. (2000). Weibliche Genitalverstümmelung : Künstlerinnen und Künstler aus Nigeria klagen an : Broschüre zur Ausstellung. Karben, Karlheinz Kunisch GmbH. - [BOOK]

Women Living under Muslim Laws (Organization) (1994). Resources on female genital mutilation : bibliography, audiovisuals & organisations/campaigns. S.l., Women Living under Muslim Laws. - [BOOK]

Women Make Movies (Firm) (2002) The day I will never forget. Distributed by Women Make Movies. 1 videocassette (90 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. GN 484 VC no.2 2002 - [AUDIOVISUAL]
(Producer) Examines the practice of female genital mutilation in Kenya and the pioneering African women who are bravely reversing the tradition.

Wood, P. B. and K. Morgan (1993). "Male and female circumcision in Canada." CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne 149(10): n.p.- CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne - [ARTICLE]

Woods, K. and M. Clouse (1994). Facts about female genital mutilation. Santa Cruz, CA, Body Image Task Force. - [BOOK]

Woolard, D. and R. M. Edwards (1997). "Female Circumcision: An Emerging Concern in College Healthcare." Journal of American college health : J of ACH 45(5): 230.- Journal of American college health : J of ACH - [ARTICLE]

World Health Organization. (1996). Female genital mutilation : report of a WHO Technical Working Group, Geneva, 17-19 July 1995. Geneva, World Health Organization. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization. (1997). Regional plan of action to accelerate the elimination of female genital mutilation in Africa. Brazzaville, WHO. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization., UNICEF., et al. (1997). Female genital mutilation : a joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA statement. Geneva, World Health Organization. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization. Dept. of Gender Women and Health. and World Health Organization. Reproductive Health and Research. (2001). Female genital mutilation : integrating the prevention and the management of the health complications into the curricula of nursing and midwifery. Geneva, Dept. of Gender and Women's Health Dept. of Reproductive Health and Research Family and Community Health World Health Organization. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization. Dept. of Women's Health. (1999). Female genital mutilation : programmes to date : what works and what doesn't : a review. Geneva?, Dept. of Women's Health Health Systems and Community Health World Health Organization. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization. Dept. of Women's Health. (2000). A systematic review of the health complications of female genital mutilation including sequelae in childbirth. Geneva, Dept. of Women's Health Family and Community Health World Health Organization. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. (1979) Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children : female circumcision, childhood marriage, nutritional taboos, etc. : report of a seminar, Khartoum, 10-15 February, 1979. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. 170 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 26 cm. [microform]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]

World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. (1979). Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children : female circumcision, childhood marriage, nutritional taboos, etc. : report of a seminar, Khartoum, 10-15 February, 1979. Alexandria Egypt, World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. (1981). Traditional practices affecting the health of women and children : female circumcision, childhood marriage, nutritional taboos, etc. : report of a seminar, Khartoum, 10-15 February, 1979. Alexandria, World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. - [BOOK]

World Health Organization. Reproductive Health and Research. and World Health Organization. Dept. of Gender Women and Health. (2001). Management of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period in the presence of female genital mutilation : report of a WHO technical consultation, Geneva, 15-17 October 1997. Geneva, Switzerland, Dept. of Gender Women and Health Dept. of Reproductive Health and Research Family and Community Health World Health Organization. - [BOOK]

Wright, J. L. (2000). Ritual female genital cutting : an ethnographic exploration of the cultural context and rite-of-passage ceremony surrounding the practice of excision in one tribe in the Central African Republic: xiii, 233 leaves. [GENERIC]

Wynter, S. (1997). ""Genital Mutilation" or "Symbolic Birth?" Female Circumcision, Lost Origins, and the Aculturalism of Feminist/Western Thought." Case Western Reserve law review 47(2): 501.- Case Western Reserve law review - [ARTICLE]

Yacoub, Z. M., Tele-Tchad (Television network), et al. (1994) Feminine dilemma women circumcision. ArtMattan Productions. 1 videocassette (22 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
Film presents a series of interviews with religious leaders, women group representatives, health workers, everyday people and the girls themselves and asks the question: why female circumcision.

Yemen. Id*arat al-*Si*h*hah al-Inj*ab*iyah wa-Tan*z*im al-Usrah. and Pacific Institute for Women's Health. (2001). Khit*an al-in*ath : nat*a*ij dir*asah li-man*a*tiq mukht*arah min al-Yaman. Sana'a, Republic of Yemen, Lajnah al-Wa*tan*iyah lil-Mar*ah. - [BOOK]

Yoder, P. S., P. O. Camara, et al. (1999). Female genital cutting and coming of age in Guinea. Calverton, Md.
Conakry, Guinea, Macro International Inc. ;
Université de Conakry. - [BOOK]


Yoder, P. S., M. Mahy, et al. (2001). Female genital cutting in Guinea : qualitative and quantitative research strategies. Calverton, Md., Measure DHS+ ORC Macro. - [BOOK]

Zavales, A. and Ecumenics International University Project. (1994). The international human rights challenge of genital mutilation and the United Nations : initiating a global dialogue on the transcultural, multireligious, & interdisciplinary dimensions of appropriating universal human rights paradigms. Sloatsburg, NY, Ecumenics International Press. - [BOOK]

Zirn, J.-P. (1990) Des lames et des femmes. Médiathèque des trois mondes. 1 videocassette (52 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. [videorecording /]. - [AUDIOVISUAL]
The film documents the clash between French law and the commonly practiced custom of female cirsumcision among African immigrants in France. This practice often results in injury, even death. Practioners of female circumcision are prosecuted under French law.